david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "equity"

[1] Advisory Commission on Regulatory Barriers to Affordable Housing. “not In My Back Yard”: Removing barriers to affordable housing. Technical report, U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Washington, D.C., USA, July 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, urban planning
[2] David Banister. Equity and acceptability questions in internalising the social costs of transport. In Internalising the Social Costs of Transportation, pages 153-171. OECD European Conference of Ministers of Transport, 1994. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: urban economics, equity
[3] Evelyn Blumenberg. En-gendering effective planning: spatial mismatch, low-income women, and transportation policy. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70(3):269-281, 2004. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, gender, transport planning, urban planning
[4] Elizabeth Burton. The compact city: Just or just compact? A preliminary analysis. Urban Studies, 37(11):1969-2001, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, urban form
[5] Robert Cervero. Cost and performance impacts of transit subsidy programs. Transportation Research A, 18:407-413, 1984. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transit, finance
[6] Robert Cervero. Profiling profitable bus routes. Transportation Quarterly, 44:183-201, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: transit, finance, equity
[7] Robert Cervero. Transit pricing research: A review and synthesis. Transportation, 17:117-139, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: transit, finance, equity
[8] Devaiyoti Deka. Social and environmental justice issues in urban transportation. In Susan Hanson and Genevieve Giuliano, editors, The Geography of Urban Transportation, chapter 12, pages 332-355. Guildford Press, New York City, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2004. [ bib ]
A good overview of the full breadth of equity issues in transportation planning. A few distinctive points: 1) access to health care is often ignored. 2) Residential dispersal is a valid solution to spatial mismatch, but transportation is usually touted as the politically easier solution instead. My thoughts: in some ways, providing subsidised transit connections for reverse commutes is a subsidy to suburbanising businesses, giving them access to low-wage employees at a low-cost location. Without that access, they might choose to locate closer to low-wage workers. 3) In addition to poor/rich urban/suburban, short trip/long trip cross-subsidies, there are also peak/off-peak trip cross-subsidies: off-peak travellers (e.g., low income midnight shift workers, part-time workers) do not require the expensive “peaked” service of the regular workday. (To be fair, late night service is also often heavily subsidised.) 4) The rationale for federal/state funding of transit projects in suburban areas, despite inefficiency: suburbs pay a substantial chunk of taxes, and need to see some returns. If the funds didn't go through a federal level, this might not be an issue: cities could fund their own transit projects... 5) The environmental justice discussion is interesting, particularly the details of the various Bus Riders' Unions. 6) Rich drivers generate more pollution than poor drivers, both from longer trips and from lower fuel efficiency.
Keywords: transport planning, equity
[9] Anthony Downs. New Visions for Metropolitan America. The Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C., USA, 1994. [ bib ]
In the first three chapters (the only part I've read), there were some very interesting discussion of growth management policies, equity and racial segregation in the USA.

One point I found interesting was the discussion of preferences. In general, Americans want single-family detached houses, auto-based travel, free parking and short travel times. The planning system in many ways guarantees the first two: suburbs have extremely high minimum standards for housing (low density single-family homes), and generally provide generous roads and free parking. The last aspect of preferences cannot be guaranteed due to growth and swamping of existing roads by new travel, discussed at length in the book. This is the aspect I find interesting: the system is inherently biased towards one set of preferences (housing) and limits trading off housing against travel time-if an individual prefers short travel times and is willing to accept “lower quality” dense housing in return, that option is rarely available. In other words, this minimum provision limits choices, a point that Andre Sorensen has made repeatedly in his discussions in the course I'm taking.

Downs notes that one-third of US households did not live in single-family homes in 1990, and one-third were renters (presumably with substantial overlap). He describes the provision of low-cost housing as a “trickle-down” process: since cheap new housing is prohibited, only degraded older houses are available for those who cannot afford the suburban single-family home. This process breaks down when “net housing construciton is lower than net household formation”-i.e., periods of rapid growth.

Keywords: urban planning, equity, zoning, urban politics, smart growth
[10] Kim V.L. England. Suburban pink collar ghettos: the spatial entrapment of women? Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 83(2):225-242, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, gender, urban planning
[11] Mark Garrett and Brian Taylor. Reconsidering social equity in public transit. Berkeley Planning Journal, 13:6-27, 1999. [ bib ]
Some interesting notes on racial/income equity in transit service. Apparently, transit users were only 20% minorities in 1977-but that rose to 63% by 1995! I hadn't realised that the racialisation of transport in the USA was so recent. Also, some interesting notes on US funding formulas for transit: a heavy weight on service area coverage, and little weight on ridership achieved.
Keywords: equity, transport planning, finance
[12] Bruce W. Hamilton. Zoning and property taxation in a system of local governments. Urban Studies, 12:205-211, 1975. [ bib ]
Keywords: zoning, equity, urban planning
[13] Susan Hanson and Geraldine Pratt. On suburban pink collar ghettos: The spatial entrapment of women? by Kim England. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 84(3):500-504, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, gender, urban planning
[14] Patrick H. Hare. Making housing affordable by reducing second car ownership. Technical report, Patrick Hare Planning and Design, Washington, D.C., USA, April 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity, parking
[15] Patrick H. Hare. Planning, transportation, and the home economics of reduced car ownership; planning as if household budgets mattered. Technical report, Patrick Hare Planning and Design, Washington, D.C., USA, April 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity, parking
[16] A. Hay and E. Trinder. Concepts of equity, fairness and justice expressed by local transport policy makers. Environment and Planning C, 9(4):453-465, 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transport planning
[17] K. Ihlandfeldt and D. Sjoquist. The impact of job decentralization on the economic welfare of central city blacks. Journal of Urban Economics, 26:110-130, 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: sociology, equity, urban economics, urban planning, urban form
[18] Jane Jacobs. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. Vintage, New York City, NY, USA, 1961. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: urban planning, equity, transport planning, general interest, sociology, streets, pedestrian planning, accessibility, urban design
[19] Michael Jacobs. Sustainability and `the Market': A typology of environmental economics. In Robyn Eckersley, editor, Markets, the State and the Environment, pages 46-70. MacMillan, Melbourne, Australia, 1995. [ bib ]
An interesting essay. Jacobs examines the schools within environmental economics, with a fairly critical eye. He discusses five classes: A. traditional (status quo); B. neoclassical I: financial incentives (tradable quotas); C. neoclassical II: financial incentives (taxes, etc.); D. neoclassical III: monetary valuation (cost/benefit analyses); and E. property rights. He looks at how they address four questions: 1. ethics of environmental objective setting (what level of environmental protection should society choose?); 2. institutions (how should this level be chosen?); 3. instruments (how should this level be achieved?); 4. distribution (how shold costs/benefits be distributed within society). He contrasts the environmental economists with his own more political school, an “environmental democracy” based on sustainability principles. Generally, he seems to be favourable to B and C, which study only instruments; he sees these as tools compatible with environmental democracy. He is less kind to D and E, which try to answer question 2; he argues that they are unlikely to achieve sustainability, due to the market's inherent tendency to discount the future. He points out many flaws in his own preference (a democratic institution to make decisions), but prefers its basis in a public debate of ethics.
Keywords: environmental economics, economics, equity
[20] John A. Jakle and David Wilson. Derelict Landscapes: The Wasting of America's Built Environment. Rowman & Littlefield, Savage, MD, USA, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, sociology, equity
[21] Wenya Jia and Martin Wachs. Parking and affordable housing. Access Magazine, 13:22-25, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity, parking
[22] Wenya Jia and Martin Wachs. Parking and housing affordability: A case study of San Francisco. Research Paper 380, University of California Transportation Center, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity, parking
[23] Wenya Jia and Martin Wachs. Parking and housing affordability: A case study of San Francisco. Transportation Research Record, 1685:156-160, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity, parking
[24] J. Kain. The spatial mismatch hypothesis: Three decades later. Housing Policy Debate, 3:371-460, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: sociology, equity, urban economics, urban planning, urban form
[25] Jane Holtz Kay. Asphalt Nation. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: general interest, history, equity
[26] N. Krumholtz and J. Forester. Making Equity Planning Work: Leadership in the Public Sector. Temple University Press, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transport planning
[27] Mei-Po Kwan. Gender, the home-work link, and space-time patterns of nonemployment activities. Economic Geography, 75(4):370-394, October 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transport planning
[28] Sabrina Lau. Towards inclusive public transport: Immigrant mothers and their daily mobility. Master's thesis, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2007. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transit
[29] Robin Law. Beyond `women and transport': towards new geographies of gender and daily mobility. Progress in Human Geography, 23(4):567-588, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, gender, transport planning
[30] Jonathan Levine and Yaakov Garb. Evaluating the promise and hazards of congestion pricing proposals; an access centered approach. Technical Report 2/11, Floersheimer Institute for Policy Studies, Jerusalem, Israel, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: congestion pricing, equity, accessibility
[31] Jonathan Levine and Yaakov Garb. Congestion pricing's conditional promise: Promotion of accessibility or mobility? Transport Policy, 9(3):179-188, 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: congestion pricing, equity, accessibility
[32] Jonathan Levine and Aseem Inam. The market for transportation-land use integration: do developers want smarter growth than regulations allow? Transportation, 31(4):409-427, November 2004. [ bib ]
Transportation and land use research of the past decade has focused in large part on the question of whether manipulating land uses in the direction of “smart growth” alternatives can reduce vehicle miles traveled (VMT) or otherwise improve travel behavior. Yet the notion of “manipulating” land uses implies that the alternative is somehow self-organized or market-based. This view appears to underestimate the extent to which current planning interventions in the United States-largely focused on lowering development densities, mandating ample road and parking designs, and separating land uses-impose an auto-oriented template on most new development. Rather than a market failure, the paucity of “smart growth” alternatives may be a planning failure-the result of municipal regulatory exclusion. This problem definition would shift the burden of proof for policy reform, as uncertainty in travel-behavior benefits would hardly justify the continuation of exclusionary regulations. If municipal regulations in fact constrain alternatives to low-density auto-oriented development, one would expect developers to perceive unsatisfied market interest in such development. This article studies, through a national survey (676 respondents), US developers' perceptions of the market for pedestrian- and transit-oriented development forms. Overall, respondents perceive considerable market interest in alternative development forms, but believe that there is inadequate supply of such alternatives relative to market demand. Developer-respondents attribute this gap between supply and demand principally to local government regulation. When asked how the relaxation of these regulations would affect their product, majorities of developers indicated that such liberalization woud lead them to develop in a denser and more mixed-use fashion, particularly in close-in suburban locales. Results are interpreted in favor of land-policy reform based on the expansion of choice in transportation and land use. This view contrasts with a more prevalent approach which conditions policy interventions on scientific evidence of travel-behavior modification.

An excellent article, rebutting the claims of many others in the research community. The abstract is an excellent summary of the points made in this article. References BoaCra01, EwiCer01, Cra99 and Dow92. The latter is quoted: “[T]he belief that sprawl is caused primarily by market failures is based on the false assumption that there is a freely operating land use market in US metropolitan areas. No metropolitan area has anything remotely approaching a free land use market because of local regulations adopted for parochial political, social and fiscal purposes.”
Keywords: urban planning, land use transport link, equity, zoning
[33] Jonathan Levine, Aseem Inam, and Gwo-Wei Torng. A choice-based rationale for land use and transportation alternatives: Evidence from Boston and Atlanta. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 24:317-330, 2005. [ bib | DOI ]
Some great equity context, including the Tiebout hypothesis.
Keywords: land use transport link, equity, travel behaviour, zoning
[34] David Ley. Gentrification in recession: Social change in six Canadian inner cities. Urban Geography, 13(3):230-256, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: geography, canada, equity
[35] David Ley. The Middle Class and the Making of the Central City. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: geography, equity
[36] Todd A. Litman. Parking requirements impacts on housing affordability. Technical report, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, June 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very interesting read. Litman raises a number of issues associated with housing that I hadn't considered-my first reaction is to question Vancouver's downtown development patterns. Are parking requirements responsible for the tower fad, by making townhouse and four-story apartment development uneconomic for developers? On interesting bit of trivia: curb cuts reduce onstreet parking capacity. His parking management solutions are quite valuable and innovative ideas, and the studies he cites in Victoria and Mississauga are useful; I should follow up on all of his references. Of the management solutions, the two ideas I found novel were: shared parking, where apartments and businesses share spaces due to opposite peak demand times - very practical for residential downtowns; transportation management associations, where a neighbourhood organisation is formed to trade parking in a neighbourhood. I was initially convinced by his arguments about reducing developer incentive to create low-income housing, but I'm now a little skeptical; figure 12, in particular, says to me that in a scenario where 0 parking spaces are required, developers will have a huge incentive to produce high income housing, since the relative profit difference will be so much greater. Of course, this ignores the entire demand side of the equation. Overall, I think more analysis is needed to determine the real effect on developers.
Keywords: parking, urban planning, transportation demand management, equity
[37] Todd A. Litman. Pay-as-you-drive pricing for insurance affordability. Technical report, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, May 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: transportation demand management, equity, insurance
[38] D. Massey and N. Denton. American Apartheid: Segregation and the Making of the Underclass. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: sociology, equity, urban planning
[39] Ann McAfee. The renewed inner city: Is one out of three sufficient? In New Neighbourhood International Forum, Toronto, ON, Canada, January 1983. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, canada
[40] Ann McAfee. Four decades of geographical impact by Canadian social housing policies. In B.M. Barr, editor, Studies in Canadian Regional Geography: Essay in Honour of J. Lewis Robinson, number 37 in BC Geographical Series, pages 92-108. Tantalus Research, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, canada
[41] Richard Morris. Bum Rap on America's Cities: The Real Causes of Urban Decay. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, 1978. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, sociology, equity
[42] Nelson/Nygaard Consulting. Housing shortage / parking surplus. Technical report, Transportation and Land Use Coalition, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2002. [ bib | .html ]
Keywords: urban planning, equity, parking
[43] Hafiz A. Pasha. Suburban minimum lot zoning and spatial equilibrium. Journal of Urban Economics, 40(1):1-12, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: zoning, equity, urban economics, urban planning
[44] John Pucher and John L. Renne. Socioeconomics of urban travel: Evidence from the 2001 NHTS. Technical report, Vorhees Transportation Policy Institute, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: equity, transport planning
[45] Michael Replogle and Walter Hook. Improving access for the poor in urban areas. Race, Poverty & the Environment, 6(1):48-50, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, equity
[46] Georgina Santos and Laurent Rojey. Distributional impacts of road pricing: the truth behind the myth. Transportation, 31(1):21-42, February 2004. [ bib ]
This paper shows that road pricing can be regressive, progressive or neutral, and refutes the generalised idea that road pricing is always regressive. The potential distributional impacts of a road pricing scheme are assessed in three English towns. It is found that impacts are town specific and depend on where people live, where people work and what mode of transport they use to go to work. Initial impacts may be progressive even before any compensation scheme for losers is taken into account. When the situation before the scheme is implemented is such that majority of drivers entering the area where the scheme would operate come from households with incomes above the average, it can be expected that, once the scheme is implemented, these drivers coming from rich households will continue to cross the cordon and will be prepared to pay the charge. In such a case the overall effect will be that on average, rich people will pay the toll and poor people will not.

Keywords: congestion pricing, equity
[47] W. Shore. Recentralization: the single answer to more than a dozen United States problems and a major answer to poverty. Journal of the American Planning Association, 61(4):496-503, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban form, urban planning, equity
[48] Klaus Spiekermann and Michael Wegener. Freedom from the tyranny of zones: Towards new GIS-based spatial models. In A. Stewart Fotheringham and Michael Wegener, editors, Spatial Models and GIS: New Potential and New Models, pages 45-61. Taylor and Francis, London, UK, 2000. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: geographic information systems, spatial modelling, transport modelling, equity
[49] SPUR. Reducing housing costs by rethinking parking requirements. Technical report, The San Francisco Planning and Urban Research Association, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: urban planning, equity, parking
[50] Charles Tiebout. A pure theory of local public expenditures. Journal of Political Economy, 64(5):416-424, 1956. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban politics, equity, zoning
[51] Geetam Tiwari. Transport and land-use policies in Delhi. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 81:444-450, 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, transport planning, equity
[52] Martin Wachs. U.S. transit subsidy policy: In need of reform. Science, 244:1545-1549, 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: equity, transit
[53] Michael Wegener and Klaus Spiekermann. Efficient, equitable and ecological urban structures. In D.A. Hensher and J. King, editors, Proceedings of the 7th World Conference on Transport Research, volume 2, Oxford, UK, 1996. Pergamon. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport modelling, equity
[54] William C. Wheaton. Land capitalization, Tiebout mobility and the role of zoning regulations. Journal of Urban Economics, 34:102-117, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, zoning, urban economics, equity

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