david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "bike box"

[1] Danish Road Directorate. Collection of cycle concepts. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.

The growth in car traffic is creating environmental problems and congestion. Compared to other countries in Europe traffic problems in Denmark are still modest. An important explanation for this is the development in the course of the last century of a robust bicycle culture. Today, one trip out of five in Denmark is by bicycle.

The future role of the bicycle must also be strong in order to create a sustainable society. It is important to develop and infrastructure that permits the optimal exploitation of the bicycle's qualities and possibilities.

A larger share of the short trips in towns can take place by bicycle. The car is often indispensable on longer trips. The bicycle can not be alone. Intermodality is important. The right balance of good roads and paths for pedestrians, cyclists and motorists can create better towns without losing the interaction between modes of transport.

The bicycle can more often be used as feeder traffic for coach, bus, train and plane on longer trips. This calls for safe an functional access roads and terminals with good possibilities for interchanges.

Not only road administrations, but also companies, institutions, schools associations ets, must contribute to changing our attitudes to transport and making it more acceptable to cycle. The individual advantages are big. Half an hour's cycling daily increases our mean life expectancy by 1-2 years and gives better quality of life, both physically and mentally.

There are many measures that can be taken to improve cyclist safety. In spite of this, the accident risk for Danish cyclists has not changed over the past 25 years. It is necessary to approach the problem more systematically and introduce proposed solutions and places and among target groups where they will have the greatest impact.

The main challenge is promoting more and safer bicycle traffic is the need to implement a wide range of measures simultaneously. I therefore invite the reader to consider the many ideas contained in Collection of Cycle Concepts-and be inspired of those ideas, which apply to local conditions.

This is probably the best bicycle planning guide I've run into so far. Throroughly recommended for anyone interested in these issues, and for anyone already involved in bicycle planning or advocacy.

Some of the good stuff: route sweeping, every 2-8 weeks, plus extra autumn service to deal with leaves and a special service for weekends to deal with broken glass near nightlife zones (p. 123); “cycle crossings,” where pavement markings are extended through an intersection to reduce conflicts with turning motor vehicles (p. 89); advanced stop lines; cute advertisements (p. 37); signage (pp. 102-105); effect of distance on mode choice (p. 46); discussion of the need for small shops (p. 46); graph showing how age affects cycling speed and distance (p. 12); wheel ramp on stairs (p. 95); bike parking maps (p. 108), with symbols for covered/uncovered and number of spaces.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box, pavement colouring, bicycle segregation, bicycle parking, bicycle collisions, traffic calming
[2] Department for Transport. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 08/93, Department for Transport, Traffic Advisory Unit, London, UK, 1993. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[3] Department for Transport. Further development of Advanced Stop Lines. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 05/96, Department for Transport, Traffic Advisory Unit, London, UK, 1996. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[4] Søren Underlien Jensen. Arterial Streets Towards Sustainability: Design, decision and prediction tools. Technical Report D3.2, ARTISTS Consortium, Malmö, Sweden, 2004. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, urban planning, bike box, street design, streets
[5] Søren Underline Jensen, Claus Rosenkilde, and Niels Jensen. Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen. Technical report, European Cyclists' Federation, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
This before-and-after study covers the construction of one-way cycle tracks and lanes, blue cycle crossings and raised exits. It is the biggest study of its kind so far carried out in Denmark. The effects on road safety of all types of traffic both at junctions and on road sections for both accidents and injuries are examined. The effects on the volumes of motor vehicles as well as on bicycle and moped traffic are examined with regard to the construction of one way cycle tracks and lanes. Lastly, cycle facilities impact on cyclists? perceived risk and satisfaction on road sections and at junctions is also examined.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pavement colouring, bike box
[6] Ing D.H. Kuijper. De OFOS: een beschouwing over de opgeblazen fietsopstelstrook (the OFOS: A description of the `expanded waiting lane for cyclists'). Verkeerskunde, 33(9-1982), 1982. Department of Transport translation 3242. [ bib ]
The original Dutch study of bike boxes / advance stop lines. OFOS (Opgeblazen fietsopstelstrook) is the Dutch name for the device.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[7] T.J. Ryley. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists: The role of central cycle lane approaches and signal timings. Technical Report TRL181, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[8] W. Salomons. Evaluatie CPVC-OFOS in Enschede (evaluation of CPVC-model OFOS in Enschede). Verkeerskunde, 36(7-1985), 1985. Department of Transport translation 3269. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[9] Transport for London Street Management. Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs): Background and research studies. In Proceedings of Velo-City 2005, Dublin, Ireland, June 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very useful overview of London-based research on advanced stop lines (aka bike boxes) to give cyclists priority at intersections.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[10] G.T. Wall, D.G. Davies, and M. Crabtree. Capacity implications of Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists. Technical Report TRL585, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 2003. [ bib | http ]
An investigation of the capacity implications of installing Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) has been carried out by TRL Limited as part of a project entitled Cycling Facilities and Engineering, commissioned by the Charging and Local Transport Division of the Department for Transport. The study included a review of previous research into ASLs in the UK and in the Netherlands; an examination of the theoretical capacity implications of installing ASLs using OSCADY (Optimised Signal Capacity and Delay) the signal-controlled junction modelling computer programme and saturation flow formulae; `before' and `after' video surveys of modified junctions at four sites in Guildford, Surrey, and questionnaires to examine the attitudes of cyclists. While cyclists generally thought that the ASLs were safer and easier to use than unadapted junctions, concerns were expressed that some drivers did not comply with the new layout. Changes in the length of time between green signals or a longer minimum green time may be required in some circumstances. At the two sites where the number of traffic lanes remained the same there was a slight increase in saturation flow, but at the two sites where a traffic lane was removed large reductions in saturation flow were observed. This report of the study concludes with several recommendations.

A valuable source, particularly for its review of Dutch literature on bike boxes. They find that adding a bike box with a 5m deep reservoir for a bike box has no effect on an intersection's motor vehicle capacity, unless a lane must be removed to make room for the bike box.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[11] A.H. Wheeler. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists at Oxford, Newark and Bristol. Research Report RR336, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, Crawthorne, UK, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[12] A.H. Wheeler. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists: A simplified layout. Traffic Engineering and Control, 36(5):283-289, May 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[13] A.H. Wheeler, M.A.A. Leicester, and G. Underwood. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists at Oxford, Newark and Bristol. Traffic Engineering and Control, 34(2):54-60, February 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box

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