david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "bicycle planning"

[1] John Edward Abraham, Susan McMillan, Alan T. Brownlee, and John Douglas Hunt. Investigation of cycling sensitivities. In Transportation Research Board Annual Conference, Washington, D.C., USA, January 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[2] D. Patrick Allen, Nagui Rouphail, Joseph E. Hummer, and Joseph S. Milazzo II. Operational analysis of uninterrupted bicycle facilities. Transportation Research Record, 1636:30-36, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[3] Cheryl Allen-Munley, Janice Daniel, and Sunil Dhar. Urban bicycle route safety rating logistic model. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
In response to the renewed appreciation of the benefits of bicycling to the environment and public health, public officials across the nation are working to establish new bicycle routes (1). During the past two decades, a number of methods have been endorsed for the selection of “suitable” bicycle routes. These methods are limited in that they do not explicitly address bicycle safety nor do they reflect urban conditions. The purpose of this research was to develop an objective bicycle route safety rating model based on injury severity. The model development was conducted using a logistic transformation of Jersey City's bicycle crash data for the period 1997-2000. The resulting model meets a 90% confidence level by using various operational and physical factors (traffic volume, lane width, population density, highway classification, the presence of vertical grades, one-way streets and truck routes) to predict the severity of an injury that would result from a motor vehicle crash that occurred at a specific location. The modeled rating of the bicycle route's safety is defined as the expected value of the predicted injury severity. This rating is founded on the premise that safe routes produce less severe accidents than unsafe routes. The contribution of this research goes beyond the model's predictive capacity in comparing the safety of alternative routes. The model provides planners with an understanding, derived from objective data, of the factors that add to the route's safety, the factors that reduce safety and the factors that are irrelevant. The model confirms widely held beliefs, as evidenced by the findings that highways with steep grades, truck routes and poor pavement quality, create an unfavorable environment for bicyclists. On the other hand, the model found that increased volume and reduced lane width, at least in urban areas, actually reduce the likelihood of severe injury. Planners are encouraged to follow the lead of experienced bicyclists in choosing routes that travel through the urban centers as opposed to diverting bicyclists to circuitous routes on wide, low volume roads at the periphery of cities.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[4] Alta Planning and Design. San Francisco's shared lane pavement markings: Improving bicycle safety. Technical report, San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Some useful research on a distinctive type of bicycle facility. I still have mixed feelings on this design, although I can definitely imagine situations where it would be useful. The two major positive points are: it legitimizes cyclists taking the lane; improves distance between bicycles and door zone on streets where bicycles could not be otherwise accommodated. These are both major design achievements; I've spent some time thinking about these exact problems, and haven't come up with anything nearly as effective as this. However, I'm worried that this could be used as an excuse to not build bicycle lanes. A properly designed bicycle lane and parking zone should leave a buffer between parking and cyclists, and is more inviting on busy streets than a shared lane could be. Furthermore, a bicycle lane gives cyclists a real speed advantage in congested traffic: their lane might be empty while vehicle lanes are bumper-to-bumper.

The report shows that these markings encourage drivers to give bikes more clearance when passing, and gives bicycles the comfort margin needed to get them out of the dooring zone. Unfortunately, they don't address the issue of pavement markings to encourage parked cars to stay close to the curb, which is also an important part of the story.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking
[5] American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Guide for development of new bicycle facilities. Technical report, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, Washington, D.C., USA, 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport planning
[6] C.L. Antonakos. Environmental and travel preferences of cyclists. Transportation Research Record, 1438:25-33, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[7] Richard Arnott, Tilmann Rave, and Ronnie Schob. Alleviating Urban Traffic Congestion. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 2005. [ bib ]
Apparently contains a fairly positive view of cycling, from a group of economists.
Keywords: congestion pricing, transport planning, urban economics, bicycle planning, parking
[8] C.A. Ashley and C. Banister. Cycling to work from wards in a metropolitan area: 3 testing the model. Traffic Engineering and Control, 30(9), September 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle modelling
[9] Colin Ashton-Graham, Gary John, Bruce James, Werner Brög, and Helen Grey-Smith. Increasing cycling through `soft' measures (TravelSmart)-Perth, Western Australia. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 18, pages 274-289. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

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Keywords: bicycle planning, marketing, transit
[10] Lisa Aultman-Hall. Commuter Bicycle Route Choice: Analysis of Major Determinants and Safety Implications. PhD thesis, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle safety, route choice
[11] Lisa Aultman-Hall and Michael F. Adams Jr. Sidewalk bicycling safety issues. Transportation Research Record, 1636:71-76, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[12] Lisa Aultman-Hall and Fred Hall. Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on and off road incident rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30:29-43, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[13] Lisa Aultman-Hall and Fred Hall. Research design insights from a survey of urban bicycle commuters. Transportation Research Record, 1636:21-28, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[14] Lisa Aultman-Hall, Fred Hall, and Brian B. Baetz. Analysis of bicycle commuter routes using Geographic Information Systems: Implications for bicycle planning. Transportation Research Record, 1578:102-110, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[15] Lisa Aultman-Hall and M. Kaltenecker. Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(6):675-686, November 1999. [ bib ]
Interesting. This is one of the first thorough, scientific attempts at understanding cycling collisions that I've seen. The sampling methodology is always tricky, and their approach here is certainly not perfect. I would have liked to see questions about the type of facility where falls/collisions happened in their survey-this seems like vital information. The actual dataset also has its problems: only a small fraction of total exposure was on paths or sidewalks (6%). Additionally, the study area only contains a small amount of path facilities (74km), and from what I know of Toronto paths, most were built quite a long time ago and are very poorly designed and maintained. Many sections of the Martin Goodman waterfront trail were horrific when I rode it to work in 1999, and there are some really dodgy sections in the Don Valley system.

But otherwise, the study methodology is fairly sound, and the authors are suitably conservative in their conclusions. I don't fully understand their weighting system, but I'll reread that at some point.

Overall, I'd be very hesitant to condemn paths or sidewalks on the basis of a study like this. Sidewalks definitely have problems, but this study really only shows that badly designed/maintained paths are unsafe-not a surprise, really. And it says nothing at all about the “bicycle segregation” debate, despite popular citations on Wikipedia for that purpose.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada, toronto
[16] Michael R. Baltes. Factors influencing nondiscretionary work trips by bicycle determined from 1990 U.S. census metropolitan statistical area data. Transportation Research Record, 1538:96-101, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[17] Gary Barnes and Kevin J. Krizek. Estimating bicycle demand. Transportation Research Record, 1939, 2005. [ bib | DOI ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[18] L. Basford, Stuart J. Reid, T. Lester, J. Thomson, and A. Tolmie. Driver's perceptions of cyclists. Technical Report 549, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 2002. [ bib | http ]
This report describes research that examined the attitude and behaviour of drivers towards cycle users. A range of qualitative and quantitative research techniques was used, including the use of virtual reality equipment to simulate encounters between drivers and cyclists. Variations in driver attitude and behaviour based on a number of factors, including physical infrastructure and cyclists behaviour were examined. The research also examined the effectiveness of two different approaches to improving drivers' consideration of the needs of cyclists. The report makes recommendations to improve driver training, for the layout of roads and for future campaigns to raise awareness of cyclists among drivers.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[19] M. Beck and L. Immers. Bicycle ownership and use in Amsterdam. Transportation Research Record, 1441, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[20] A. Bergström and R. Magnusson. Potential of transferring car trips to bicycle during winter. Transportation Research A, 37:649-666, 2003. [ bib ]
In this Swedish study, the attitudes towards cycling during winter in general, and in relation to winter maintenance of cycleways in particular, is examined. Questionnaires were answered by a thousand employees at four major companies in two Swedish cities. There was a clear difference in mode choice between seasons. The number of car trips increased by 27% from summer to winter while the number of bicycle trips decreased by 47%. The number of car trips increased with distance while the number of bicycle trips decreased, and the decrease was even more significant in winter than in summer. There was a difference in opinion between different categories of cyclists, on what factors influenced the choice of transport mode for the journey to work. Temperature, precipitation, and road condition were the most important factors to those who cycled to work in summer but not in winter. Exercise was the most important to those who cycled frequently in winter, and travel time the most important to those who never cycled to work. By improving winter maintenance service levels on cycleways, it might be possible to increase the number of bicycle trips during winter by 18%, representing a corresponding decrease in the number of car trips of 6%. To increase cycling during winter, snow clearance was found to be the most important maintenance measure. Skid control was not considered as important for the choice of mode, although important to attend to for safety reasons.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle safety
[21] Inger Marie Bernhoft. In depth interviews with road users in cyclist accidents. In Proceedings of the 11th International Bicycle Planning Conference, pages 63-67, Graz, Austria and Maribor, Slovenia, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[22] Inger Marie Bernhoft. Risk perception and behavior of elderly pedestrians and cyclists in cities in Denmark. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
The risk perception and behavior of elderly pedestrians and cyclists in cities in Denmark have been revealed by means of a questionnaire administered to both elderly people aged 70 and above and a control group aged 40-49, and interviews with some of the elderly respondents. The elderly appreciate pedestrian crossings, signalized intersections and cycle paths significantly more than the control group does. To a larger extent they feel that it is dangerous to cross the road where these facilities are missing. Furthermore, the elderly pedestrians find the presence of a sidewalk very important on their route whereas the control group more often chooses the fastest route. Differences within the group of elderly respondents can be related to differences in health and physical abilities rather that to differences in age. Generally, the elderly road users state a more cautious behavior in specific traffic situations than the control group. Thus, a significantly higher proportion of the elderly than the control group choose to walk up to a pedestrian crossing if they can see one and stop the bicycle before turning left, and a significantly lower proportion of the elderly choose to cross at a red light, ride on the sidewalk and ride in the opposite direction on the cycle path.

Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, streets
[23] Timothy Blair. The bicycle compatibility of streets in downtown Calgary. Master's project, University of Calgary, Department of Environmental Design-Planning, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[24] Wolfgang Bohle. German cycling policy experience. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 13, pages 209-222. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[25] H. Botma. Method to determine level of service for bicycle paths and pedestrian-bicycle paths. Transportation Research Record, 1502:38-44, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[26] Piet H.L. Bovy and Mark A. Bradley. Route choice analyzed with stated-preference approaches. Transportation Research Record, 1037, 1985. [ bib ]
Keywords: route choice, transport modelling, bicycle planning
[27] T. Bracher, H. Luda, and H.-J. Thiemann. Zusammenfassende Auswertung von Forschungsergebnissen zum Radverkehr in der Stadt. Technical report, Forschung Stadtverkehr, Bundesministerium für Verkehr (Federal Ministry of Traffic), Band A7, Bergisch Gladbach/Berlin/Bonn, Germany, 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[28] Werner Brög. The acceptance of policies to encourage cycling. In Socialdata, Muenchen, Germany, 1982. Transportation Research Board. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[29] Werner Brög, E. Erl, S. Funke, and B. James. Behaviour change and sustainability from individualised marketing. In Proceedings of 24th ATRF Conference, Perth, Australia, September 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[30] K. Bryan-Brown and T. Savill. Cycle theft in Great Britain. Technical Report 284, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1997. [ bib ]
This report presents a summary of international literature on pedal cycle theft, cycle theft statistics for Great Britain and the results of a survey of victims of bicycle theft in Great Britain. The 1996 British Crime Survey estimated that there were 660,000 incidences of pedal cycle theft during 1995 in England and Wales, of which only 28% were reported to, and recorded by, the Police. The Scottish Crime Survey estimated that there were 26,000 bicycles stolen during 1993, representing a rise of 53% on the 1986 figures. A survey of bicycle theft victims was conducted in December 1996 and January 1997. Topics covered include attitudes towards bicycle theft and how theft and the threat of them affect cycling behaviour. These are compared with response from a control sample of cyclists who have never experienced theft. Results from the survey are compared with British Crime Survey findings.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[31] Sally Cairns. Going further with cycling. Town and Country Planning, 70(7/8):197, July/August 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[32] Sally Cairns. Cycle gains. Town and Country Planning, 72(8):230-233, September 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[33] Beth Callister. Vancouver area bicycle groups: approaches and effectiveness. Master's thesis, University of British Columbia, School of Community and Regional Planning, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1999. [ bib ]
An interesting little essay, including some historical facts about Vancouver cycling groups that I wasn't aware of, such as the fact that BEST was originally an offshoot of Bicycle People. Too bad there's no online copy... reading it on microfiche on UBC campus is a pain.
Keywords: activism, bicycle planning, urban politics, canada
[34] I.C. Cameron, N.J. Harris, and N.J. Kehoe. Tram-related injuries in Sheffield. Injury, 32(4):275-277, May 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: transit, bicycle planning
[35] Canadian Institute of Planners and Go For Green. Community cycling manual: A planning and design guide. Technical report, Go For Green, Ottawa, ON, Canada, June 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[36] Matthew Carmona. Road to nowhere: Urban design, highway engineers, and the design of cycle lanes. Town and Country Planning, 73(1):31, January 2004. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, streets, urban design
[37] Centre for Research and Contract Standardisation in Civil Engineering (CROW). Sign up for the bike: design manual for a cycle-friendly infrastructure. Technical report, CROW, Ede, The Netherlands, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[38] Centre for Research and Contract Standardisation in Civil Engineering (CROW). Aanbevelingen voor verkeersvoorzieningen binnen de bebouwde kom ASVV 1996 (recommendations for traffic and transport facilities in built-up areas). Technical Report 110, CROW, Ede, The Netherlands, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[39] Robert Cervero and Michael Duncan. Walking, bicycling and urban landscapes: Evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area. American Journal of Public Health, 93(9):1478-1483, 2003. [ bib | http ]
Some claim that cardependent cities contribute to obesity by discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between urban environments and nonmotorized travel.

We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models. Builtenvironment factors exerted far weaker, although not inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control variables.

Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health professions are to forge an effective alliance against cardependent sprawl.

A good study looking at the factors influencing cycling and walking. The perspective is Cervero's usual framework, the three Ds: density, diversity and design. All three are found to have significant influences on bicycle usage, with the residential end being slightly more important. Of the urban form variables, the presence of neighbourhood retail is found to be the strongest predictor of walking.

From an evaluation standpoint, I wish these authors would standardize/normalize the coefficients of their models! After limiting to statistically significant variables, normalization would allow me to compare the relative influence of each variable on bicycle usage. It would also be extremely useful to include the mean and standard deviation of all input variables, to allow some rough comparisons to other study areas. If the input data has low variance (e.g., a uniformly low-density suburb), meaningful patterns could be missed.

Finally, the bicycle model seems pretty shoddy-the rho-squared value is only 0.13! Since it only considers factors at origin and destination, I imagine it's missing a massive amount of valuable data, like the topography, safety and quality of the route itself.

Keywords: active transportation, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, bicycle modelling
[40] City of Toronto. Bicycle/motor-vehicle collision study. Technical report, City of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
An excellent, through report of bicycle/motor vehicle collisions, in a Canadian context. See also: Tom00.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[41] City of Vancouver. Downtown transportation plan. Technical report, City of Vancouver, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 2002. [ bib |

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This was my real introduction to transport planning, and now in retrospect I can see that this document represents a very progressive stance on transportation planning. See some of my detailed comments on cycling at the VACC website; I've been the lead person on downtown issues for the VACC for the last several years.
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, goods movement, transit, canada
[42] City of Vancouver Engineering Services. 1999 bicycle plan: Reviewing the past, planning the future. Technical report, City of Vancouver, Vancouver, BC, Canada, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
By the time I actually got around to reading this, I was familiar with much of the content. I'm still surprised by how slowly they're implementing the non-downtown recommendations, but I suppose the downtown needs are by far the most pressing, and quite time-consuming. I like the fact that they actually define level-of-service measures for bicycle routes-I'd be curious to run the counts through a GIS and see how the existing routes do in terms of LoS.
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[43] Stephen D. Clark and Matthew W. Page. Cycling and urban traffic management and control systems. Transportation Research Record, 1705:77-84, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[44] Andy Clarke. US bicycle planning. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 17, pages 263-273. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[45] Andy Clarke and Linda Tracy. Bicycle safety-related research synthesis. Technical Report FHWA-RD-94062, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[46] Jo Cleary. Developing healthy travel habits in the young: Safe routes to school in the UK. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 6, pages 86-99. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[47] Jo Cleary and Hugh McClintock. Evaluation of the Cycle Challenge Project: A case study of the Nottingham cycle-friendly employers' project. Transport Policy, 8(2):117-125, April 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[48] Jo Cleary and Hugh McClintock. The Nottingham cycle-friendly employers' project: lessons for encouraging cycle commuting. Local Environment, 5(2):217-222, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[49] Cleary Hughes Associates. Nottingham Cycle Challenge Project: Final report. Technical report, Cleary Hughes Associates, Hucknall, Nottingham, UK, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[50] Nigel Coates. Parking policy and bicycle promotion in Oxford. In Proceedings of Velo-City 1997, Barcelona, Spain, September 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, parking
[51] Commission for Integrated Transport. European best practice in delivering integrated transport. Technical report, Commission for Integrated Transport, London, UK, November 2001. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit
[52] Andy Cope, Sally Cairns, Ken Fox, Debbie A. Lawlor, Mary Lockie, Les Lumsdon, Chris Riddoch, and Paul Rosen. The UK national cycle network: an assessment of the benefits of a sustainable transport infrastructure. World Transport Policy and Practice, 9(1), 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[53] J.H. Crawford. Carfree Cities. International Books, Utrecht, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[54] Cyclists' Public Affairs Group. BikeFrame: A model cycling policy. Technical report, Cyclists' Touring Club and the Bicycle Association, Godalming, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[55] Danish Road Directorate. Collection of cycle concepts. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.

The growth in car traffic is creating environmental problems and congestion. Compared to other countries in Europe traffic problems in Denmark are still modest. An important explanation for this is the development in the course of the last century of a robust bicycle culture. Today, one trip out of five in Denmark is by bicycle.

The future role of the bicycle must also be strong in order to create a sustainable society. It is important to develop and infrastructure that permits the optimal exploitation of the bicycle's qualities and possibilities.

A larger share of the short trips in towns can take place by bicycle. The car is often indispensable on longer trips. The bicycle can not be alone. Intermodality is important. The right balance of good roads and paths for pedestrians, cyclists and motorists can create better towns without losing the interaction between modes of transport.

The bicycle can more often be used as feeder traffic for coach, bus, train and plane on longer trips. This calls for safe an functional access roads and terminals with good possibilities for interchanges.

Not only road administrations, but also companies, institutions, schools associations ets, must contribute to changing our attitudes to transport and making it more acceptable to cycle. The individual advantages are big. Half an hour's cycling daily increases our mean life expectancy by 1-2 years and gives better quality of life, both physically and mentally.

There are many measures that can be taken to improve cyclist safety. In spite of this, the accident risk for Danish cyclists has not changed over the past 25 years. It is necessary to approach the problem more systematically and introduce proposed solutions and places and among target groups where they will have the greatest impact.

The main challenge is promoting more and safer bicycle traffic is the need to implement a wide range of measures simultaneously. I therefore invite the reader to consider the many ideas contained in Collection of Cycle Concepts-and be inspired of those ideas, which apply to local conditions.

This is probably the best bicycle planning guide I've run into so far. Throroughly recommended for anyone interested in these issues, and for anyone already involved in bicycle planning or advocacy.

Some of the good stuff: route sweeping, every 2-8 weeks, plus extra autumn service to deal with leaves and a special service for weekends to deal with broken glass near nightlife zones (p. 123); “cycle crossings,” where pavement markings are extended through an intersection to reduce conflicts with turning motor vehicles (p. 89); advanced stop lines; cute advertisements (p. 37); signage (pp. 102-105); effect of distance on mode choice (p. 46); discussion of the need for small shops (p. 46); graph showing how age affects cycling speed and distance (p. 12); wheel ramp on stairs (p. 95); bike parking maps (p. 108), with symbols for covered/uncovered and number of spaces.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box, pavement colouring, bicycle segregation, bicycle parking, bicycle collisions, traffic calming
[56] D. Davies. Light rapid transit: implications for cyclists. Technical report, Cycle Touring and Campaigning, June/July 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: transit, bicycle planning
[57] D.G. Davies, L. Chinn, G.S. Buckle, and Stuart J. Reid. Cycling in vehicle restricted areas. Technical Report 583, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 2003. [ bib | http ]
Vehicle restricted areas (VRAs) or `pedestrian areas' in town centres are sometimes important routes for cyclists. However, cycling is prohibited in many VRAs on the grounds of pedestrian comfort and safety. TRL studied the behaviour of 2,220 cyclists at sites in Cambridge, Hull and Salisbury where cycling is permitted for part or all of the day. TRL also interviewed 300 pedestrians and 150 cyclists at these sites to obtain additional details about behaviour and attitudes. The report presents data on cycling speeds, dismounting and pedestrian flows and identifies those factors that significantly influence cyclist behaviour. It also shows which types of cyclists are most likely to ignore cycling bans and to cycle fast. The interviews reveal varying levels of acceptance by pedestrians of cycling in VRAs, and indicate that some injurious incidents occur. Conclusions are presented about how the physical layout of the VRA and other factors can affect pedestrian safety and comfort. The report does not endorse or reject cycling in VRAs, but presents information that may assist with appropriate local regulation and design.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[58] D.G. Davies, S. Gray, G. Gardner, and G. Harland. A quantitative study of attitudes of individuals to cycling. Technical Report 481, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[59] D.G. Davies, M.E. Halliday, M. Mayes, and R.L. Pocock. Attitudes to cycling: a qualitative study and conceptual framework. Technical Report 266, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[60] D.G. Davies and E. Hartley. New cycle owners: Expectations and experience. Technical Report 369, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1999. [ bib ]
Cycle sales have increased substantially but overall cycle use has not. This project investigated the expectations and experiences of new cycle owners to see how they might be encouraged to cycle more, particularly for utility purposes. 76 adults who did not regularly cycle, who were buying a new cycle for themselves, were interviewed in cycle shops immediately after their purchase, about their planned cycle use and expectations. After one month they completed a four-day travel diary. After another month, they were interviewed in-depth regarding their cycle use, experiences and attitudes. Almost all those who completed the survey were pleased with their purchase. The majority cycled at least once a week, some much more frequently. Leisure was the main journey purpose but those who cycled to work tended to cycle more frequently. Physical effort, practical difficulties, the weather and the danger and unpleasantness from motor traffic were the main deterrents. One quarter reported using their cars less. However, most continued to use cars for the majority of journeys, including many under one mile. The report concludes that measures are needed to overcome practical barriers to greater cycle use, and to make cycling more enjoyable, for both new and existing cyclists.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[61] Juan de Dios Ortúzar, Andrés Iacobelli, and Claudio Valeze. Estimating demand for a cycleway network. Transportation Research A, 34(5):353-374, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle modelling
[62] Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions. A road safety good practice guide. Technical report, Department for Transport, Local Government and the Regions, London, UK, 2001. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[63] Michelle DeRobertis and Rhonda Rae. Buses and bicycles: Design alternatives for sharing the road. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 71(5):36-44, May 2001. [ bib ]
This is a very good idea for streets with heavy bus traffic. Following the VACC's recommendation, Vancouver has implemented this on downtown Burrard St.
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, streets, pavement marking
[64] Atze Dijkstra, Peter Levelt, Jytte Thomsen, Ole Thorson, Jan van Severen, Peter Vansevenant, Puk Kristine Nilsson, Else Jørgensen, Belinda la Cour Lund, and Jan Grubb Laursen. Best practices to promote cycling and walking. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
The ADONIS project was commissioned by the European Commission to a Consortium comprising 7 partners as part of the Fourth Framework Programme. Original title of the project is: Analysis and Development Of New Insight into Substitution of short car trips by cycling and walking (ADONIS).

The ADONIS project was partly funded by the EU - DG VII Transport RTD Programme, Urban Sector and was co-financed by Danish Transport Council, Danish Ministry of Transport, Municipality of Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Road safety, SAINCO TRAFICO S.A., Swedish Transport & Communications Research Board and Belgian Institute for Traffic Safety.

Interesting ideas: C10 (New types of designs for bus stops) describes some interesting ways of designing bus stops to reduce conflicts with cyclists. In one of the options, the bicycle lane is against the curb, but the bus does not pull into the curb to let passengers off. Instead, it stops in its lane, and passengers walk across the bicycle lane. To help them, zebra crossings are marked across the bicycle lane at the bus doors. I think this design is only needed because buses in Denmark are not allowed to pull up to the curb when there is a bicycle lane. C17a-b (Two-way bicycle traffic in one-way streets in Belgium and the Netherlands) gives some interesting background on the effectiveness of this desirable tactic in those countries, and includes some useful signs used there. C18 (two-way traffic on cycle tracks) makes the interesting point that two-way tracks can be good solutions when there are many T juntions on one side of the street, but few on the other (e.g., next to rail tracks or water).

The crossings section is excellent: all of C19-C32 are worth reading. These ideas are first-rate, and few of them have been adopted in North America, from what I've seen. These are some of the biggest issues that I have with current design on this continent. I liked their use of the term “cycle crossing” where the bike lane/path is marked through an intersection.

The parking section (C33-C38) isn't too revolutionary. There are a few interesting details of free public bicycle programmes, and company bicycle programmes in C40-C42. The rest of the policy section (C39-C44) was unexciting, and likewise for the education section (C45-C52).

The organisation section had some interesting ideas. C53 discusses bicycles on public transport (mainly commuter rail routes) in Copenhagen. C56 (“BikeBusters”) describes a programme where committed car drivers were given a free bike, free bus tickets for a year, and asked to fill in trip diaries and track their weight and cholesterol. Others describe bike-to-school programmes, bicycle courier companies, and priority snow cleaning.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, pavement colouring, pavement marking, streets
[65] Jennifer Dill. Measuring network connectivity for bicycling and walking. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, urban planning, transport planning
[66] Jennifer Dill and Theresa Carr. Bicycle commuting and facilities in major U.S. cities: If you build them, commuters will use them. Transportation Research Record, 1828:116-123, 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Some surveys indicate that providing bicycle lanes and paths may encourage more people to commute by bicycle. The presence of a striped lane or separated path can increase a cyclist's perception of safety. With growing concerns over traffic congestion and vehicle pollution, public policy makers are increasingly promoting bicycling as an alternative for commuting and other utilitarian trip purposes. State and local spending on bicycle facilities has increased significantly over the past decade. Previous studies have linked higher levels of bicycle commuting to various demographic and geographic variables. At least one analysis showed that cities with higher levels of bicycle infrastructure (lanes and paths) witnessed higher levels of bicycle commuting. Research was conducted that affirms that finding by analyzing data from 43 large cities across the United States. This cross-sectional analysis improves on previous research by including a larger sample of cities, not including predominantly college towns, and using consistent data from the Bureau of the Census 2000 Supplemental Survey. Although the analysis has limitations, it does support the assertion that new bicycle lanes in large cities will be used by commuters.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[67] Linda B. Dixon. Bicycle and pedestrian level-of-service performance measures and standards for congestion management systems. Transportation Research Record, 1538:1-9, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[68] Sean T. Doherty, Lisa Aultman-Hall, and Jill Swaynos. Commuter cyclist accident patterns in Toronto and Ottawa. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 126(1):21-26, Jan/Feb 2000. [ bib ]
In this study, self-reported cyclist collision and fall information from a mail-back questionnaire was analyzed for a sample of 2,945 adult cyclists who commute to work/school in Toronto and Ottawa. Analysis focused on incident frequencies by month, time of day, location, road surface condition, and injury level. These results are presented in order to provide a valuable complement to other sources of bicycle incident data obtained primarily from emergency room hospital records. Only a small percentage of collision and fall incidents resulted in a major injury and would therefore be found in a bicycle accident database compiled from emergency room hospital records. Slightly more, 19.2 and 11.7% of the collisions in Ottawa and Toronto, respectively, were reported to police. The results of the study found that collisions were more sensitive to automobile traffic, whereas falls were more sensitive to the prevailing roadway surface conditions. There was a higher proportion of falls than collisions during the winter months in both cities. However, the severity of injuries from collisions and falls were fairly consistent across time periods. Even when the severity of collisions and falls were considered for different roadway environmental conditions and between roads and off-road, no difference was found. This analysis suggests that minor collisions and falls should be considered in accessing the safety experience of bicyclists.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[69] J.T. Doolittle and E.K. Porter. Integration of bicycles and transit. TCRP Synthesis 4, Transportation Research Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C., USA, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, intermodal, transit
[70] DSB (Danish State Railways). Cykelparkering og cykelcentre: et idekatalog (Cycle parking and cycle centres: a catalogue of ideas). Technical report, DSB Styregruppen vedr. cykelparkering, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[71] DSB (Danish State Railways, S-Togsdivision). Handlingsplan for forbedring af cykelparkering ved S-stationer (Plan for promotion of cycle parking at S-train stations). Technical report, DSB Styregruppen vedr. cykelparkering, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[72] R. Eash. Destination and mode choice models for nonmotorized travel. Transportation Research Record, 1674:1-8, 1999. [ bib ]
Apparently, this talks about the inapplicability of motorized travel models to peds/bikes.
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, transport modelling
[73] Rune Elvik. Which are the relevant costs and benefits of road safety measures designed for pedestrians and cyclists? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32:37-45, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle collisions, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, finance
[74] Rune Elvik. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of safety effects. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33:327-336, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, traffic calming, bicycle collisions
[75] J. Emery, C. Crump, and P. Bors. Reliability and validity of two instruments designed to assess the walking and bicycling suitability of sidewalks and roads. American Journal of Health Promotion, 18(1), 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, active transportation
[76] Bruce Epperson. Evaluating suitability of roadways for bicycle use: towards a cycling level-of-service standard. Transportation Research Record, 1438:9-16, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[77] D. Alrutz et al. Begleitforschung Fahrradfrendliche Städte und Gemeinden NRW: Maßnahmen- und Wirksamkeitsuntersuchung. Technical report, Ministerium für Wirtschaft und Mittelstand, Energie und Verkehr NRW, Düsseldorf, Germany, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[78] Reid Ewing. Best Development Practices: Doing the Right Thing and Making Money at the Same Time. The Planners Press, Chicago, IL, USA, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, bicycle planning
[79] Reid Ewing, William Schroeer, and William Greene. School location and student travel: Analysis of factors affecting mode choice. Transportation Research Record, 1895:55-63, 2004. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[80] Ardeshir Faghri and Erika Egyháziová. Development of a computer simulation model of mixed motor vehicle and bicycle traffic on an urban road network. Transportation Research Record, 1674:86-93, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[81] Joel Fajans and Melanie Curry. Why bicyclists hate stop signs. Access Magazine, 18:28-31, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, streets, traffic controls
[82] R. Field. Are you being squeezed at road narrowings? Technical report, Cyclists' Touring Club, Godalming, Surrey, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[83] Department for Transport. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 08/93, Department for Transport, Traffic Advisory Unit, London, UK, 1993. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[84] Department for Transport. Further development of Advanced Stop Lines. Traffic Advisory Leaflet 05/96, Department for Transport, Traffic Advisory Unit, London, UK, 1996. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[85] John Forester. Bicycle Transportation. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA, 1983. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[86] John Forester. How to make biking a real alternative. Transportation and Environment, 21:59-61, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[87] John Forester. The bicycle transportation controversy. Transportation Quarterly, 55(2):7-17, Spring 2001. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[88] Jon F. Forni, Thorburn Colquhoun, and David Hasen. The use of coloured surfacing in road layout. In European Transport Forum Annual Meeting, Traffic Management and Road Safety, September 1997. [ bib ]
Quote: Forni, Colquhoun and Hasen reported in 1997 a study of the use of coloured surfacing in road layouts in Europe. They found that the colour red is the most commonly used pavement colour for road safety in Europe. However, colours including yellow and other combination colours have been successfully used to reduce speeds and collisions. The study suggested adopting green coloured surfacing for schemes that aim to identify sections of road for use by certain vehicles such as buses or bicycles.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[89] Lawrence D. Frank, Peter O. Engelke, and Thomas L. Schmid. Health and Community Design: The Impacts of the Built Environment on Physical Activity. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA, 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: active transportation, urban planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, transport planning, land use transport link
[90] T. Froitzheim. Fahrradstationen an Bahnofen: Modelle, Chancen, Risiken. Technical report, ADFC-Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf, Germany, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[91] Howard Frumkin, Lawrence D. Frank, and Richard Jackson. Urban sprawl and public health: designing, planning, and building for healthy communities. Island Press, Washington, D.C., USA, 2004. [ bib ]
Keywords: active transportation, urban planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, transport planning
[92] D. Fukuda and S. Morichi. Incorporating aggregate behavior in an individual's discrete choice: An application to analyzing illegal bicycle parking behavior. Transportation Research A, 41(4):313-325, May 2007. [ bib ]
Keywords: parking, bicycle planning
[93] Forschungsgesellschaft für Straßen-und Verkehrswesen. Empfehlungen für Radverkehrsanlagen ERA 95. Technical report, FGSV, Cologne, Germany, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[94] Philine Gaffron. The implementation of walking and cycling policies in British local authorities. Transport Policy, 10(3):235-244, July 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[95] Per Gårder, Lars Leden, and Urho Pulkkinen. Measuring the safety effect of raised bicycle crossings using a new research methodology. Transportation Research Record, 1636:64-70, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[96] G. Gardner. Transport implications of leisure cycling. Technical Report 347, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1998. [ bib ]
This research considers the links between leisure cycling, purely for the enjoyment of it, and cycling for more utility purposes, such as to work. Surveys of more than 500 leisure cyclists, non-cyclists and those who cycle to work have been completed along with depth interviews and discussion groups. The main focus of the work is to understand what are the differences between the perceptions of leisure cycling and utility cycling and to determine how this might be overcome in order to increase the use of cycling for utility journeys. Recommendations are made of the type of facility and promotional means that might encourage more people to move from leisure cycling to utility cycling.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[97] Gary Gardner. When cities take bicycles seriously. World Watch Magazine, 115:16-22, September/October 1998. [ bib | http ]
A basic overview of the rationale for urban bicycling, and the obstacles facing further promotion. It has some interesting points regarding bike-based police and parking enforcement. I think those officers are great, along with the bike-based paramedics (stretcher trailer and all) I saw in Vancouver's Grey Cup festivities in November 2005.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[98] J. Garrard, G. Rose, and S. Lo. Promoting transportation cycling for women: The role of bicycle infrastructure. Preventive Medicine, 2007. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[99] Birgitta Gatersleben and Katherine M. Appleton. Contemplating cycling to work: attitudes and perceptions in different stages of change. Transportation Research A, 41(4):302-312, May 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
In 1996 the UK government introduced the National Cycle Strategy which aimed to double the number of cycling trips by the end of 2002 and double them again by 2012. So far, however, these targets have not been met. The House of Commons ascribes this to “a fundamental lack of commitment to cycling on an individual, regional and national level”. This paper addresses the individual level by examining the views of commuters in different stages of change as distinguished by Prochaska2019s model [Prochaska, J.O., DiClemente, C.C., 1984. The Transtheoretical Approach: Crossing Traditional Boundaries of Change. Dow Jones/Irwin, Homewood IL]. This model views behaviour change as a process rather than an event. Two studies were conducted amongst university staff and students: a survey study and an action study. The studies showed that as people progress from precontemplation to action their attitudes towards cycling become more positive and their perceptions of various personal and external barriers change. This suggests that different strategies are necessary to move people in different stages of change to action and maintenance. At the moment, it seems that regular cyclists form a very small minority of people who will cycle under most circumstances simply because they like cycling. The majority of people have never contemplated cycling. There is, however, also a group of people who would like to cycle and could be persuaded to cycle under the right circumstances.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle attitudes
[100] Nasir Gharaibeh, Cynthia Wilson, Michael Darter, and George Jones. Development of a bike path management system for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Transportation Research Record, 1636:56-63, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[101] K. Gilbert and M. McCarthy. Deaths of cyclists in London 1985-92: the hazards of road traffic. British Medical Journal, 308:1534-1537, June 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[102] Tom Godefrooj. Segregation or integration? The Dutch approach. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation
[103] Peter Gordon and Harry Richardson. Bicycling in the United States: A fringe mode? Transportation Quarterly, 52(1):9-11, Winter 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[104] Fanis Grammenos, Julie Tasker-Brown, and Soxag Pogharian. Residential street pattern design. Technical Report 75, Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation, Ottawa, ON, Canada, 2002. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: urban planning, canada, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[105] John Grimshaw. The UK National Cycle Network: a millenium project. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 7, pages 100-109. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[106] N. Guthrie, D.G. Davies, and G. Gardner. Cyclist's assessments of road and traffic conditions: the development of a cyclability index. Technical Report 490, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, Crowthorne, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
This project examined the factors that determine how suitable a road is for cycling (its level of service for cycling, here termed `cyclability'). Using a specially equipped instrumented bicycle, 51 cyclists road a 9.2km route and made subjective assessments of the `cyclability' of its 11 links. The authors then tried to explain the subjective scores in terms of objective road and traffic data. These included road width, surface quality, traffic flow and speed, passing distance, gradient, `lateral conflict', effort and aesthetics. This approach has potential applications in the field of cycle route planning as it can provide engineers with reassurance that certain types of conditions are likely to be deemed satisfactory by the majority of cyclists.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle modelling
[107] S. Hanaoka. Present bicycle traffic situation in Japanese cities. In Proceedings of Velo-City 1997, Barcelona, Spain, September 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[108] Susan L. Handy, Xinyu Cao, and Patricia L. Mokhtarian. Self-selection in the relationship between the built environment and walking: Empirical evidence from Northern California. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1):55-74, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
An excellent article investigating the role of attitudes in walking and biking. Most importantly, they attempted a quasi-longitudinal method. They discussed the feedbacks between the act of walking and attitudes about walking, although their method is not sophisticated enough to examine those feedbacks.

Some of the numbers are scary. For the average suburban respondent, the minimum distance to any establishment was about 550m, versus 250m for an urban respondent. The distance to any household maintenance establishment (e.g., groceries, drugstore, etc.) was 800m versus 400m for urban. No wonder no one walks!

Their cycling model had a surprisingly high R-squared value, 0.258-most disaggregate cycling models that I've seen are much lower. Cervero & Duncan had about 0.13; Krizek had about 0.22. Mind you, this could just be a result of their model structure, which is quite unusual.

Regarding their actual models, I'm mildly concerned by the pro-bike/walk and pro-transit attitude variables in their cycling model. While the signs are plausible, the variables are fairly highly correlated; is it possible that the parameters are therefore misestimated? (Mind you, a correlation of 0.3 isn't that high, at the end of the day.) More importantly, what is the “alternatives factor”? I'm guessing that it refers to the “PA options” factor, but it's not clear. Finally, why is a change in the “socializing behaviour” in the new neighbourhood associated with greater cycling? This isn't explored in the paper, but I could imagine that it means “more other people out cycling”-the classic “safety in numbers” hypothesis from the cycling literature.

Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, land use transport link
[109] A. Hanton and S. McCombie. Provision for cycle parking at railway stations in the London area. Technical report, London Cycling Campaign, London, UK, 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, rail
[110] David L. Harkey, Donald W. Reinfurt, and Matthew Knuiman. Development of the bicycle compatability index. Transportation Research Record, 1636:13-20, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[111] David L. Harkey and J. Richard Stewart. Evaluation of shared-use facilities for bicycles and motor vehicles. Transportation Research Record, 1578:111-118, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[112] James Harrison. Planning for more cycling: the York experience bucks the trend. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 9, pages 143-154. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[113] Carmen Hass-Klau. Cycle safety: a comparison between British and (West) German cities. Technical report, Environmental and Transport Planning, Brighton, UK, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[114] Tony Hathway. Assessing the costs and benefits of cycle networks. World Transport Policy and Practice, 2(3):34-41, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[115] L. Herrstedt, M.A. Nielsen, L. Agústson, K.M.L. Krogsgaard, E. Jørgensen, and N.O. Jørgensen. Safety of cyclists in urban areas: Danish experiences. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[116] Lene Herrstedt. The Danish strategy to promote safe cycling. In Proceedings of Velo-City 99, pages 3-9, Graz, Austria, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
One of the targets in the Danish masterplan for transport “Traffic 2005” is to promote cycling and walking in Danish cities and at the same time to improve traffic safety for cyclists and pedestrians as well as for road users in general. Around 4% of car traffic mileage should be transferred to cycling and walking before 2005. The traffic safety target of the masterplan, in spite of increasing traffic is to reduce the number of persons killed and injured by 45% before the year 2000 with reference to the year 1988. In 1997, the Danish Government published a new national traffic safety strategy “Every accident is one too many”. This strategy pays specific attention to the safety of cyclists. Demonstration projects co-financed by the government have been initiated to demonstrate some examples on how to realize the intentions and targets. In addition, new research activities have been initiated. In 1997, the Ministry of Transport established a Cyclist Forum with the purpose of creating a dialogue among local, regional and state level Road Authorities and the different players involved or related to planning and safety of cycling. In the spring of 1999, the Ministry of Transport is going to introduce a new national cycling strategy and the Danish Road Directorate will introduce a new handbook for local technicians and planners - a Catalogue of Ideas for recommendable solutions to promote safe cycling. This paper presents the Danish strategy for promoting safe cycling - including an overview of the policy, activities and experiences so far.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[117] Paul Hess and Beth M. Milroy. Making Toronto's streets. Technical report, University of Toronto, Department of Geography and Planning, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2006. [ bib | www: ]
Keywords: streets, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, canada, street design, urban design, prioritisation
[118] C.J.J.M. Heys and G. Vredeveld. Legal framework for cycle facility: waiting lane for moped riders and cyclists. Verkeerskunde, 34(4-1983), 1983. Department of Transport translation 14672 PR IV/E17. [ bib ]
A very early bike box paper, translated from Dutch.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[119] Mayer Hillman. Cycling: Towards health and safety. Report of a BMA working party, British Medical Association, Oxford, UK, 1992. [ bib ]
According to McC02, this was a landmark publication in the UK context.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[120] Mayer Hillman, J. Adams, and J. Whitelegg. One False Move... A study of Children's Independent Mobility. PSI Publishing, London, UK, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[121] Dave Holladay. Cycling with public transport: combined in partnership, not conflict. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 8, pages 110-142. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning, transit
[122] Walter Hook and Michael Replogle. Motorization and non-motorized transport in Asia. Land Use Policy, 13(1):69-84, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[123] D. Hope. Nonrecreational cycling in Ottawa. Transportation Research Record, 1441, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[124] P. Hopkinson and Mark Wardman. Evaluating the demand for new cycle facilities. Transport Policy, 3(4):241-249, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[125] C. Howard and E.K. Burns. Cycling to work in Phoenix: Route choice, travel behavior and commuter characteristics. Transportation Research Record, 1773:39-46, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[126] Tom Huber and John Williams. Wisconsin bicycle planning guidance. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, June 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls
[127] M. Hudson. Bicycle Planning: Policy and Practice. The Architectural Press, London, UK, 1982. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[128] T. Hughes. Exploring Nottinghamshire by bike. Countryside Recreation, 8(3), August 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[129] John Douglas Hunt. An examination of bicycle use sensitivities over time using stated preference. Technical Paper TP-06015, Institute for Advanced Policy Research, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada, 2006. [ bib | www: ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[130] John Douglas Hunt and John Edward Abraham. Influences on bicycle use. Unpublished?, October 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[131] John Douglas Hunt and Alan T. Brownlee. Design and calibration of the Edmonton transport analysis model. In Presented at the 77th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling, canada
[132] William W. Hunter. An evaluation of red shoulders as a bicycle and pedestrian facility. Technical report, University of North Carolina, Highway Safety Research Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Somewhat interesting, mostly due to its rarity: there are very few North American studies of pavement colouring. It's a rural context, and hence not very applicable in the situations I examine, where a bike lane might be coloured adjacent to a parking lane. The most curious aspect of the paper is the author's choice to consider “motor vehicle encroaches neighboring vehicle lane when passing bike” as a major variable-it's an issue, but not a major one in my view.
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, pavement colouring, streets
[133] William W. Hunter. Evaluation of innovative bike-box application in Eugene, Oregon. Transportation Research Record, 1705:99-106, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[134] William W. Hunter, David L. Harkey, J. Richard Stewart, and Mia L. Birk. Evaluation of blue bike-lane treatment in Portland, Oregon. Transportation Research Record, 1705:107-115, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring, streets
[135] William W. Hunter and J. Richard Stewart. An evaluation of bike lanes adjacent to motor vehicle parking. Technical report, Florida Department of Transportation, December 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, parking, pavement marking, streets
[136] William W. Hunter, J. Richard Stewart, and Jane C. Stutts. Study of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes. Transportation Research Record, 1674:70-77, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[137] William W. Hunter, J. Richard Stewart, Jane C. Stutts, Herman H. Huang, and Wayne E. Pein. A comparative analysis of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes: Final report. Technical Report FHWA-RD-99-034, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, streets, pavement marking, bicycle segregation
[138] William W. Hunter, J. Richard Stewart, Jane C. Stutts, Herman H. Huang, and Wayne E. Pein. A comparative analysis of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes: Operational and safety findings and countermeasure recommendations. Technical Report FHWA-RD-99-035, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, October 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Many, many good references! This is a really good read.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation, pavement marking, streets
[139] William W. Hunter, Jane C. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox. Pedestrian and bicycle crash types of the early 1990s. Technical Report FHWA-RD-95-163, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning
[140] Ulrike Huwer. Let's bike: the 10 point pedalling action programme to support cycling. World Transport Policy and Practice, 6(2), 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[141] Tetsuro Hyodo, Norikazu Suzuki, and Katsumi Takahashi. Modeling of bicycle route and destination choice behavior for bicycle road network plan. Transportation Research Record, 1705:70-76, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[142] Institution of Highways and Transportation. Guidelines for cycle audit and review. Technical report, IHT, London, UK, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[143] Institution of Highways and Transportation, Bicycle Assocation, and Cyclists' Touring Club. Cycle-friendly infrastructure: Guidelines for providing and design. Technical report, IHT, London, UK, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[144] Michael E. Jackson and Erik O. Ruehr. Let the people be heard: San Diego county bicycle use and attitude survey. Transportation Research Record, 1636:8-12, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[145] Peter L. Jacobsen. Safety in numbers: More walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Injury Prevention, 9:205-209, 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[146] Søren Underlien Jensen. DUMAS: Safety of pedestrians and two-wheelers. Note 51, Vejdirektoratet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning
[147] Søren Underlien Jensen. Cyclist safety at signalised junctions. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[148] Søren Underlien Jensen. Land use and cycling. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, urban form, land use transport link
[149] Søren Underlien Jensen. Arterial Streets Towards Sustainability: Design, decision and prediction tools. Technical Report D3.2, ARTISTS Consortium, Malmö, Sweden, 2004. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, urban planning, bike box, street design, streets
[150] Søren Underlien Jensen. Effekter af overkørsler og blå cykelfelter. Technical report, Trafitec, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring, bicycle collisions
[151] Søren Underlien Jensen, Karina Andersen, and Erling Nielsen. Junctions and cyclists. In Proceedings of Velo-City 1997, Barcelona, Spain, 1997. [ bib ]
Quote: A study conducted in Denmark found that blue painted bicycle lanes at intersections resulted in a 38% decrease in bicycle crashes and 71% reduction in fatalities and serious injuries.
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring
[152] Søren Underline Jensen, Claus Rosenkilde, and Niels Jensen. Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen. Technical report, European Cyclists' Federation, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
This before-and-after study covers the construction of one-way cycle tracks and lanes, blue cycle crossings and raised exits. It is the biggest study of its kind so far carried out in Denmark. The effects on road safety of all types of traffic both at junctions and on road sections for both accidents and injuries are examined. The effects on the volumes of motor vehicles as well as on bicycle and moped traffic are examined with regard to the construction of one way cycle tracks and lanes. Lastly, cycle facilities impact on cyclists? perceived risk and satisfaction on road sections and at junctions is also examined.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pavement colouring, bike box
[153] Marc Jolicoeur. A bicycle network for a North American metropolis: The case of Montreal. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[154] Marc Jolicoeur, Guy Thibault, Hélène Huard, Jean-François Bruneau, and Jean-Sébastien Fallu. L'état du vélo au Qu'ebec en 2000 (bicycling in Quebec in 2000). Technical report, Vélo Québec, Montréal, QC, Canada, October 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[155] M. Jones. Promoting cycling in the UK: Problems experienced by the practitioners. World Transport Policy and Practice, 7(3):7-12, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[156] Rod Katz. Modeling bicycle demand as a mainstream transportation planning function. Transportation Research Record, 1502:22-28, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[157] Rod Katz. Forecasting bicycle demand. Technical Report AP-R194/01, Austroads Inc., Sydney, Australia, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
An everyday review of demand modelling. The section on “maximal share studies” was interesting (Bro82, MorTho92). They also cited a four-stage model including bicycles in Portland (RosLaw93) and Edmonton (HunBro98).
Keywords: transport modelling, bicycle planning
[158] M.J.N. Keijer and Piet Rietveld. How do people get to the railway station? the Dutch experience. Transportation Planning and Technology, 23:215-233, November 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, rail
[159] Jeffrey R. Kenworthy. Bicycling the world: A global perspective on bicycles in cities and their role in reducing automobile dependence. In Keynote paper to Velo Australia, International Bicycle Conference, Fremantle, Australia, October 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, urban planning, transport planning
[160] I. Ker and B. James. Evaluating behaviour change in transport: Benefit cost analysis of individualised marketing. Technical report, Transport WA, Perth, Australia, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[161] Karl Kim and Lei Li. Modeling fault among bicyclists and drivers involved in collisions in hawaii, 1986-1991. Transportation Research Record, 1538:75-80, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[162] Jeremy R. Klop and Asad J. Khattak. Factors influencing bicycle crash severity on two-lane, undivided roadways in North Carolina. Transportation Research Record, 1674:78-85, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[163] Stephen Knight. Urban cycling options in the free market. World Transport Policy and Practice, 5(1), 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[164] Københavns Kommune (Municipality of Copenhagen). Cykelregnskab 2000 (Bicycle Account 2000). Technical report, Københavns Kommune, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[165] Københavns Kommune (Municipality of Copenhagen). Cykelregnskab 2004 (Bicycle Account 2004). Technical report, Københavns Kommune, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[166] E. Koop. On the recent engagement of bicycles and trains in Denmark. In N. Jensen, editor, Proceedings of Velo-City 1989, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, rail
[167] Thomas Krag. Urban cycling in Denmark. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 14, pages 223-236. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[168] Kevin J. Krizek. Estimating the economic benefits of bicycling and bicycle facilities: An interpretive review and proposed methods. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[169] Kevin J. Krizek and Pamela J. Johnson. Proximity to trails and retail: Effects on urban cycling and walking. Journal of the American Planning Association, 72(1):33-42, 2006. [ bib ]
A fairly simple study, but with some important discussion and results. Most importantly, they examined nonlinear reactions to distance for cycling and walking. While this is not a surprising result, and would probably emerge from a traditional multinomial logit mode choice model (with linear disutility for distance), it is still worth exploring. From a policy perspective, the nonlinear relationship that emerges can be vital to designing walkable and bikable neighbourhoods. After controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, they found that only the presence of retail closer than 200m was associated with higher odds of walking; the presence of retail in the 200m-400m range had no significant impact on the odds of walking. This contradicts the received wisdom that people are willing to walk up to 400m (1/4 mile) for such trips. It also suggests that urban intensification should be focused within a very narrow range of retail establishments to be effective, similar to the strategy of Toronto's Avenues plan or Vancouver's EcoDensity initiative.

For cycling, they found that only the presence of a path within 400m of home was associated with higher odds of biking. Again, more distant paths had no significant effect. This is also a lower limit than the received wisdom, although not drastically so. I think Vancouver's long-range bicycle plan aims for bike routes with a spacing of 500m, although they're nowhere close to that yet. It does suggest that there could be significant improvements in mode share when the spacing improves from the current level (roughly 1000m) to 500m, which is a bit surprising; I'd sort of thought that we'd see diminishing returns with the later routes, but this paper suggests that routes that are too far away have no impact on most people.

Finally, Krizek and Johnson mention one important note: the number of vehicles/bicycles in a household is a potentially endogenous variable, making it dangerous for use in a model. An interesting note, and one that's rarely considered in the modelling literature.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[170] Kevin J. Krizek and Rio W. Roland. What is at the end of the road? Understanding discontinuities of on-street bicycle lanes in urban settings. Transportation Research D, 10(1):55-68, 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
Demarcating on-street bicycle facilities is often mentioned as an important strategy to encourage increased bicycle safety and bicycle travel. However, little if any literature has focused on instances where separate on-street bicycle facilities end. This paper better understands the severity of such instances and corresponding physical characteristics. We identify 30 discontinuities of on-street bicycle lanes in Minneapolis, Minnesota, and collect primary data measuring their physical attributes and cyclists' perceptions of the level of comfort while cycling through each. Using multi-variate analysis, the findings suggest that discontinuities ending on the left side of the street, with increased distance of crossing intersections, having parking after the discontinuities, and wider width of the curb lane are statistical elements that contribute to higher levels of discomfort. Such analysis is useful in determining bicyclists' comfort level where discontinuities exist and such methods can be an important part of an overall level of service toolkit for planning on-street bicycle lanes.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[171] Ing D.H. Kuijper. De OFOS: een beschouwing over de opgeblazen fietsopstelstrook (the OFOS: A description of the `expanded waiting lane for cyclists'). Verkeerskunde, 33(9-1982), 1982. Department of Transport translation 3242. [ bib ]
The original Dutch study of bike boxes / advance stop lines. OFOS (Opgeblazen fietsopstelstrook) is the Dutch name for the device.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[172] C. Kuranani and D.D. Bel. Bicycle parking in Tokyo: Issues, policy and innovation. In Presented at the 76th Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., USA, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[173] Bruce Landis, Russell Ottenberg, and Venkat Vatticuti. The latent demand method. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[174] Bruce W. Landis. Bicycle intersection hazard score: a theoretical model. Transportation Research Record, 1438:3-8, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[175] Bruce W. Landis. Bicycle system performance measures. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, pages 18-26, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[176] Bruce W. Landis, Theodore A. Petritsch, Herman F. Huang, and Ann Do. Characteristics of emerging road and trail users and their safety. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 2004. [ bib | DOI | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[177] Bruce W. Landis, Venkat R. Vattikuti, and Michael T. Brannick. Real-time human perceptions: towards a bicycle level of service. Transportation Research Record, 1578:119-126, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[178] Bruce W. Landis, Venkat R. Vattikuti, Russell M. Ottenberg, and Theodore A. Petritsch. Intersection level of service for the bicycle through movement. Transportation Research Record, 1828:101-106, 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[179] S. Lawson and B. Morris. Our of cars and onto bikes: what chance? Traffic Engineering and Control, 40(5), May 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[180] C. Leclerc, N. Noël, and Martin E.H. Lee-Gosselin. Cyclisme et convivialité de la route: développement d'un outil d'aide à la décision. Routes et transports, 30(1):9-20, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[181] Mauricio Leclerc. Bicycle planning in the City of Portland: Evaluation of the city's Bicycle Master Plan and statistical analysis of the relationship between the city's bicycle network and bicycle commute. Field area paper, Portland State University, Portland, OR, USA, Fall 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[182] Lars Leden. Has the city of Gothenburg found the concept to encourage bicycling by improving safety for bicyclists? In Proceedings of Velo-City 97, pages 271-274, Barcelona, Spain, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring
[183] Lars Leden, Per Gårdner, and Urho Pulkkinen. Measuring the safety effect of raised bicycle crossings using a new research methodology. Transportation Research Record, 1636:64-70, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring
[184] Lars Leden, Per Gårdner, and Urho Pulkkinen. An expert judgment mode applied to estimating the safety effect of a bicycle facility. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32(4):589-599, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring
[185] Brian Ho-Yin Lee, Joseph L. Schofer, and Frank S. Koppelman. Bicycle safety helmet legislation and bicycle-related non-fatal injuries in California. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[186] Ursula Lehner-Lierz. The role of cycling for women. In Rodney Tolley, editor, The greening of urban transportation: planning for walking and cycling in Western cities, chapter 10. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 3rd edition, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, gender, bicycle planning
[187] Todd A. Litman. Online transportation demand management encylopedia. Technical report, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2005. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: transportation demand management, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, transit, urban form, parking, urban economics, finance, prioritisation, accessibility
[188] Todd A. Litman, Robin Blair, Bill Demopoulos, Nils Eddy, Anne Fritzel, Danelle Laidlaw, Heath Maddox, and Katherine Forster. Pedestrian and bicycle planning: A guide to best practices. Technical report, Victoria Transport Policy Institute, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2002. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[189] Rongfang (Rachel) Liu and Chang-Qian Guan. Mode biases of urban transportation policies in China and their implications. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 131(2):58-70, June 2005. [ bib ]
An interesting article, particularly since I haven't read much on China before. They describe bike mode share of 40-60%, which is quite incredible! Car trips belong in the "other" category, and other makes up less than 14% of trips. However, it's on the rise: they show Beijing rising from 6% in 1986 to 27% in 2000 (for "other"). They complain about patronizing Western attitudes towards bicycles, but do a little of the same themselves. However, they close with an appeal for China to emulate the Dutch.
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, transport modelling
[190] X. Liu, L. Shen, and F. Ren. Operational analysis of bicycle accidents and recommended countermeasures in Beijing, China. Transportation Research Record, 1487:75-83, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[191] William J. Lucas. A report on cycling fatalities in Toronto 1986-1996: recommendations for reducing cycling injuries and death. Technical report, Office of the Regional Coroner for Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 1998. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[192] A. Luers. Reiseantrittwiderstande, speziell der Einfluss wohnungsnaher Abstellmöglichkeiten auf den Verkehrsanteil des Fahrrades (Resistance factors at the start of journeys, with particular reference to the availability of cycle parking facilities near residences). In Perspektiven des Fahrradverkehrs: Internationaler Planungsseminar auf Schloss Laxenburg bei Wien, Vienna, Austria, 1985. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[193] H. Maddox. Another look at Germany's bicycle boom: implications for local transportation policy and planning strategy in the USA. World Transport Policy and Practice, 7(3):44-48, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[194] Marcello Mamoli. Padua: a decade to become a cycle city. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 16, pages 251-262. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib ]
Nothing exceptional in this chapter.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[195] Karel Martens. The bicycle as a feedering mode: experiences from three European countries. Transportation Research D, 9(4):281-294, 2004. [ bib ]
Bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public transport for one trip, is a multimodal alternative for the car. This paper discusses the use of bike-and-ride in three countries with widely differing bicycle cultures and infrastructures: the Netherlands, Germany and the UK. The share of the bicycle in access trips is comparable to general levels of bicycle ridership in each country, but only for train services and other fast modes of public transport. Strong similarities are found in the characteristics of bike-and-ride trips and users, in terms of travel distances, travel motives, and the impact of car availability. The majority of bike-and-ride users travels between 2 and 5 km to a public transport stop, with longer access distances reported for faster modes of public transport. Work and education are the main travel motives, with the first dominating the faster modes and the second the slower modes of public transport. Car availability hardly influences the choice for a combined use of bicycle and train, but strongly affects the levels of bike-and-ride for slower modes of transport.

Keywords: bicycle planning, intermodal
[196] Karel Martens. Promoting bike-and-ride: the Dutch experience. Transportation Research A, 41(4):326-338, May 2007. [ bib ]
The number of policy initiatives to promote the use of bike-and-ride, or the combined use of bicycle and public transport for one trip, has grown considerably over the past decade as part of the search for more sustainable transport solutions. This paper discusses the experiences with, and impacts of, such initiatives in the Netherlands. The Dutch measures to promote bicycle use in access trips have been generally successful. A country-wide program to upgrade regular and secure bicycle parking at train stations has led to an increase in user satisfaction and a growth in bicycles parked at stations. Smaller programs to stimulate the combined use of bike-and-bus have resulted in an increase in bicycle use, bus use, and share of infrequent bus passengers. Bicycle lockers at bus stops are hardly used by bus passengers, due in part to the dominance of students among bus users as well as the relatively high price of lockers in comparison to the value of bicycles used for access trips. Measures to promote the use of the bicycle in egress trips have met with more varying results. Projects to introduce leasing bicycles for egress trips have failed to attract passengers, for both train and bus services. In contrast, the introduction of flexible rental bicycles at train stations has resulted in a small reduction in car use, growth in train trips, and growth in bicycle use for non-recurrent trips. The Dutch experiences suggest some lessons for promoting bike-and-ride in countries and cities with a less well-developed bicycle infrastructure.

Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, intermodal
[197] Scott Martin. The world's best cities for cycling. Bicycling Magazine, May 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[198] D. Mathew. New way ahead for Oxford: a balanced transport policy. Surveyor, 175(5126):16-17, October 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport planning
[199] C.T. Matwie and J.F. Morrall. Guidelines for a safety audit of bikeway systems. World Transport Policy and Practice, 7(3):28-37, 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[200] Hugh McClintock. The Bicycle and City Traffic: Principles and Practice. Belhaven Press, London, UK, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[201] Hugh McClintock. Cycle facilities and cyclists' safety: experience from Greater Nottingham and lessons for future cycling provision. Transport Policy, 3(1/2), January 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[202] Hugh McClintock. When in the UK, cycle like the Dutch? Town and Country Planning, 69(12):356-357, December 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[203] Hugh McClintock. Practioners' take-up of professional guidance and research findings: Planning for cycling and walking in the UK. Planning Practice and Research, 16(2):193-203, May 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[204] Hugh McClintock. The development of UK cycling policy. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 2, pages 17-35. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[205] Hugh McClintock. The mainstreaming of cycle policy. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 1, pages 1-16. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, transport planning
[206] Hugh McClintock. Nottingham. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 11, pages 171-191. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[207] Hugh McClintock, editor. Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[208] Hugh McClintock. Promoting cycling through `soft' (non-infrastructural) measures. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 3, pages 36-49. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[209] Hugh McClintock and Jo Cleary. English urban cycle route network experiments: the experience of the Greater Nottingham network. Town Planning Review, 64(2):159-192, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[210] Hugh McClintock and Jo Cleary. Cycle facilities and cyclists' safety. Transport Policy, 3(1):67-77, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[211] Hugh McClintock and Dave Morris. Bikes and trams: integrating the benefits. Town and Country Planning, 72(10):308-309, November 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit
[212] Hugh McClintock and Phil Philippou. Improving professional training for bicycle planning in the UK. In Proceedings of Velo Mondial Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[213] Hugh McClintock and V. Shacklock. Alternative transport plans: encouraging the role of employers in changing staff commuter travel modes. Town Planning Review, 67(4), October 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[214] Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat. Cycling in the Netherlands. Technical report, Ministerie van Verkeer en Waterstaat, The Hague, The Netherlands, 2007. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[215] Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management. Sustainable road safety programme. Technical report, Ministry of Transport, Public Works and Water Management, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[216] Richard C. Moeur. Analysis of gap patterns in longitudinal rumble strips to accommodate bicycle travel. Transportation Research Record, 1705:93-98, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[217] E. Morgan-Thomas. Why don't you commute by bicycle? In Proceedings of Ausbike 92: Cyclist Behaviour and Planning, volume 92, Melbourne, Australia, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[218] William E. Moritz. Survey of North American bicycle commuters: design and aggregate results. Transportation Research Record, 1578:91-101, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[219] William E. Moritz. Adult bicyclists in the United States: Characteristics and riding experience in 1996. Transportation Research Record, 1636:1-7, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[220] Hugh Morris. Commute rates on urban trails: Indicators from the 2000 census. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 2004. [ bib | DOI | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[221] Anne V. Moudon, Chanam Lee, Allen D. Cheadle, Cheza W. Collier, Donna Johnson, Thomas L. Schmid, and Robert D. Weather. Cycling and the built environment, a US perspective. Transportation Research D, 10(3):245-261, May 2005. [ bib ]
This disaggregate cross-sectional study uses primary data on the cycling behavior of 608 randomly sampled respondents in urbanized King County, Washington, and objective parcel-level GIS measures of land use and infrastructure conditions. Binary logit model findings provide new insights on who bicycles, and on perceived and actual built environmental conditions associated with the likelihood of cycling in neighborhoods, controlling for socio-demographic variables. A high 21% of the respondents report cycling at least once a week in their neighborhood, more often for recreation or exercise than for transportation. Cycling is more popular among male, younger adults, transit users, and those who are physically active and in good health. Both perceived and objective environmental conditions contribute to the likelihood of cycling. Proximity to trails and the presence of agglomerations of offices, clinics/hospitals, and fast food restaurants, measured objectively, are significant environmental variables. Previously researched correlates of cycling, such as the presence of bicycle lanes, traffic speed and volume, slope, block size, and the presence of parks, are found insignificant when objectively measured. A non-linear relationship is found between the odds of cycling and the perception of traffic problems and automobile-oriented facilities. Overall, cycling is only moderately associated with the neighborhood environment. It appears to be an individual choice that is independent from environmental support. This finding likely reflects the limited bicycle infrastructure in the sample frame-an unfortunate condition found in most US metropolitan regions. Policy and intervention programs could increase cycling by improving both actual and perceived environmental conditions.

The study is severely limited by its sampling frame and by casting its net too broadly. If it had focused only on work trips or shopping trips, the results would probably be more meaningful. Of course, given the survey method and the miniscule mode share of cycling, this would be extremely expensive.
Keywords: bicycle planning, urban form
[222] Max Nankervis. The effect of weather and climate on bicycle commuting. Transportation Research A, 33(6):417-431, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[223] Andrew Nash. Traffic calming in three European cities: Recent experience. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
An interesting look at Munich, Vienna and Zurich. Their approaches to funding are similar to Vancouver's, but they've done some very innovative projects, including narrowing arterials while maintaining capacity, and extensive parking management plans.
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, parking, urban planning, traffic calming
[224] National Cycling Forum. Cycling in urban areas: issues in retailing. Technical report, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London, UK, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[225] National Cycling Forum. Model conditions of carriage: Accommodating the bicycle on bus and coach. Technical report, Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions, London, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, rail
[226] F. Navin. Bicycle traffic flow characteristics: experimental results and comparisons. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 64(3):31-36, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[227] Alyse Nelson. Livable Copenhagen: The design of a bicycle city. Technical report, Center for Public Space Research / University of Washington, Copenhagen, Denmark / Seattle, WA, USA, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[228] Arthur C. Nelson and David Allen. If you build them, commuters will use them: Cross-sectional analysis of commuters and bicycle facilities. Transportation Research Record, 1578:79-83, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[229] D.A. Niemeier. Longitudinal analysis of bicycle count variability: Results and modelling implications. Journal of Transportation Engineering, pages 200-206, May/June 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[230] N. Noël and Martin E.H. Lee-Gosselin. Urban form, road network design and bicycle use: the case of Quebec City's metropolitan area. In Proceedings of Velo Mondial Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[231] N. Noël and Martin E.H. Lee-Gosselin. Mieux comprendre la pratique de la bicyclette: Enquête sur les déplacements et les activités de cyclistes de la région métropolitaine de Québec. Recherche - Transports - Sécurité, 74:26-49, 2002. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[232] N. Noël, P. Villeneuve, and Martin E.H. Lee-Gosselin. Aménagement du territoire et espaces d'action: identification des déterminants des stratégies de déplacements de cyclistes de la région de Québec à l'aide d'un SIG. Revue internationale de géomatique, 11(3-4):79-101, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, geographic information systems, canada
[233] R.B. Noland and H. Kunreuther. Short-run and long-run policies for increasing bicycle transportation for daily commuter trips. Transport Policy, 2(1):67-79, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[234] Nottinghamshire County Council. School travel: Health and the environment. Technical report, Nottinghamshire County Council, Nottingham, UK, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[235] Timothy George Oketch. New modeling approach for mixed-traffic streams with nonmotorized vehicles. Transportation Research Record, 1705:61-69, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[236] Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development. Safety of vulnerable road users. Technical report, OECD, Paris, France, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[237] J. Scott Osberg and Sarah C. Stiles. Bicycle use and safety in Paris, Boston and Amsterdam. Transportation Quarterly, 52(4):61-76, Fall 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[238] J. Scott Osberg, Sarah C. Stiles, and Kwaku Ohene. Bicycle safety behavior in Paris and Boston. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(5):679-687, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[239] J. Parkin. Comparisons of cycle use for the journey to work from the '81, '91 and 2001 censuses. Traffic Engineering and Control, 44(8):299-302, 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[240] Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Bike lane design guide. Technical report, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, August 2002. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking
[241] A. Pedler and D.G. Davies. Cycle track crossings of minor roads. Technical Report 462, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 2000. [ bib | http ]
Cycle tracks can help cyclists to avoid sharing busy roads with motor vehicles. One of the main problems with providing them, however, is the design of crossings of minor roads. This introduces a hazard and cyclists are usually required to give way. Highway authorities have been reluctant to give priority to cyclists in case drivers fail to observe the priorities and casualties occur. This project investigates the safety and effectiveness of a variety of cycle track crossing arrangements at minor road T-junctions, including crossings with priority for cyclists. Five cycle track crossings were monitored using video cameras and 223 cyclists using the crossings were interviewed. The report draws conclusions about the safety of various designs and makes recommendations about cycle track crossing design.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[242] Wayne Pein. Bicyclist performance on a multiuse trail. Transportation Research Record, 1578:127-131, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[243] D.A. Plane. Urban transportation: policy alternatives. In Susan Hanson, editor, The Geography of Urban Transportation, pages 435-469. Guildford Press, New York City, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[244] Christopher Porter, John Suhrbier, and William L. Schwartz. Forecasting bicycle and pedestrian travel: State of the practice and research needs. Transportation Research Record, 1674:94-101, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[245] Jim Pravetz. A review of bicycle policy and planning developments in Western Europe and North America: A literature search. Technical report, Government of South Australia, Director-General of Transport, 1992. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[246] Jean-François Pronovost and Marc Panneton. La Route Verte: A cycling challenge, a planning challenge. In Proceedings of Velo Mondial Conference, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, June 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[247] John Pucher. Bicycling boom in Germany: A revival engineered by public policy. Transportation Quarterly, 51(4), 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[248] John Pucher. Cycling safety on bikeways vs. roads. Transportation Quarterly, 55(4), Fall 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Essentially just a rebuttal to John Forester's (ridiculous) claims about the massive benefits of vehicular cycling.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation
[249] John Pucher. The role of public policies in promoting the safety, convenience and popularity of bicycling. World Transport Policy and Practice, 7(4):75-79, 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[250] John Pucher and Ralph Buehler. Cycling trends and policies in Canadian cities. World Transport Policy and Practice, 11(1), March 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
Bicycling accounted for an average of 1.2% of work trips in Canada in 2001, but with considerable variation by province and metropolitan area. In this study, we chose six Canadian cities for detailed analysis of their cycling trends and policies: Montreal and Quebec City in Quebec; Ottawa and Toronto in Ontario; and Vancouver and Victoria in British Columbia. All of these cities have made impressive efforts to encourage more and safer cycling. Most of the cities report increases in cycling levels over the past two decades but appear to have reached a limit due to lack of funding for crucially needed cycling infrastructure (bike paths and lanes, parking, intersection modifications, etc.). In addition, the low-density, car-oriented suburban sprawl spreading around most Canadian cities has been increasing trip distances, thus making cycling decreasingly feasible outside the urban core. Finally, Canadian cities and provinces have not imposed any significant restrictions on car use or imposed increases in taxes, fees, and other charges for car use, such as most European cities have implemented to discourage driving and increase transit use, walking, and cycling. If Canadian cities really want to further increase cycling levels, they will have to further expand cycling infrastructure, curb low-density sprawl, and impose more restrictions and charges on car use.

Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[251] John Pucher and Ralph Buehler. Why Canadians cycle more than Americans: A comparative analysis of bicycling trends and policies. Transport Policy, 13(3):265-279, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
In spite of their colder climate, Canadians cycle about three times more than Americans. The main reasons for this difference are Canada?s higher urban densities and mixed-use development, shorter trip distances, lower incomes, higher costs of owning, driving and parking a car, safer cycling conditions, and more extensive cycling infrastructure and training programs. Most of these factors result from differences between Canada and the United States in their transport and land-use policies, and not from intrinsic differences in history, culture or resource availability. That is good news, since it suggests the possibility of significantly increasing cycling levels in the United States by adopting some of the Canadian policies that have so effectively promoted cycling and enhanced its safety.

Very interesting. They perform a regression on some fairly aggregate data: provincial and state modal share and statistics. They find that precipitation, gasoline price, cycling fatality rates and temperature are the major factors determining mode share when American and Canadian data are combined, with median work trip distance almost as significant.

Some of the most interesting findings: average length of work trips in similar-sized cities are twice as high in the US; cars are really quite a bit more expensive in Canada: 33% of income, compared to 18% in the U.S.

I'm curious to see their sources for Canadian cycling injury stats; while I can see how they estimate total injuries, I can't imagine how they convert that to injuries per 100 million kilometres.

I looked at the results a little more closely, and tried to normalize the input variables prior to doing correlation, to give a sense of their rank in affecting cycling mode share. (This effectively just amounts to multiplying the regression parameter by the standard deviation of the variable.) Using this approach, I found the parameters to be, from most to least important: 1) gas price, 0.30; 2) precipitation, -0.19; 3) work trip distance, -0.10; 4) temperature, 0.09; 5) fatality rate, -0.09.

I'd be curious to see a similar analysis done in a purely urban Canadian context.

Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[252] John Pucher and Ralph Buehler. Making cycling irresistable: Lessons from the Netherlands, Denmark and Germany. Transport Reviews, 28(4), July 2008. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation
[253] John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra. Making walking and cycling safer: lessons from Europe. Transportation Quarterly, 54(3):25-50, Summer 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[254] John Pucher, Charles Komanoff, and Paul Schimek. Bicycling renaissance in North America? Transportation Research A, 33(7/8):625-654, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[255] Rails-to-Trails Conservancy and the Association of Pedestrian and Bicycle Professionals. Improving conditions for bicycling and walking: A best practices report. Technical report, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, January 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[256] Mikko Räsänen, Ilkka Koivisto, and Heikki Summala. Car drivers and bicyclist behavior at bicycle crossings under different priority regulations. Journal of Safety Research, 30:67-77, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[257] Mikko Räsänen and Heikki Summala. Attention and expectation problems in bicycle-car collisions: An in-depth study. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30(5):657-666, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[258] Mikko Räsänen and Heikki Summala. The safety effects of sight obstacles and road-markings at bicycle crossings. Traffic Engineering and Control, 39(2), February 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[259] Stuart J. Reid. Bicycles in bus lanes: Should they really be there? In Proceedings of Velo-City 2001, Edinburgh, UK, September 2001. Transport Research Laboratory Limited. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[260] Stuart J. Reid. Pushing bikes. Surveyor magazine, pages 18-20, June 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[261] Michael Replogle. Bicycles and Public Transportation. Bicycle Federation, Washington, D.C., USA, 1983. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit
[262] Michael Replogle. Bicycles on transit: A review of the international experience. Transportation Research Record, 1141, 1987. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit
[263] Michael Replogle and H. Parcells. Linking bicycle/pedestrian facilities with transit. Technical report, Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., USA, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, intermodal
[264] Piet Rietveld. The accessibility of railway stations: the role of the bicycle in the Netherlands. Transportation Research D, 5(1):71-75, January 2000. [ bib ]
The market potential of railway services depends on the quality of the total chain from residence to place of activity. In The Netherlands where natural conditions and infrastructure are conducive, the bicycle is a potentially attractive access mode for railways since it allows travellers to avoid waiting at bus, metro or tram stops. Especially at the home end the bicycle appears to play a large role as an access mode with a share of 35%. At the activity end the share is much shorter. Implications are discussed for policies aiming at increasing the share of multimodal trips. Also physical planning implications are considered.

Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, intermodal
[265] Piet Rietveld. Nonmotorized modes in transport systems: A multimodal chain perspective for the Netherlands. Transportation Research D, 5(1):31-36, January 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, pedestrian planning
[266] Piet Rietveld. Biking and walking: The position of non-motorized transport modes in transport systems. In K.J. Button and D.A. Hensher, editors, Handbooks in Transport, volume 3, pages 299-320. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport planning
[267] Piet Rietveld and Vanessa Daniel. Determinants of bicycle use: do municipal policies matter? Transportation Research A, 38(7):531-550, August 2004. [ bib ]
A useful read, featuring a regression analysis of 103 Dutch cities, their cycling policies, network quality, and geographic features. The Fietersbond (Dutch Cyclists' Union) collected a lot of the data here, including a special bicycle that measures pavement quality via vibrations! Before drawing conclusions from their results, I'd like to normalize all of their variables to better understand what the relative contribution of each parameter was.
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport planning
[268] Chris Rissell, Fiona Campbell, Bruce Ashley, and Lisa Jackson. Driver road rule knowledge and attitudes towards cyclists. World Transport Policy and Practice, 8(4):26-30, 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[269] Daniel A. Rodríguez and Joonwon Joo. The relationship between non-motorized mode choice and the local physical environment. Transportation Research D, 9(2):151-173, 2004. [ bib ]
By estimating multinomial choice models, this paper examines the relationship between travel mode choice and attributes of the local physical environment such as topography, sidewalk availability, residential density, and the presence of walking and cycling paths. Data for student and staff commuters to the University of North Carolina in Chapel Hill are used to illustrate the relationship between mode choice and the objectively measured environmental attributes, while accounting for typical modal characteristics such as travel time, access time, and out-of-pocket cost. Results suggest that jointly the four attributes of the local physical environment make significant marginal contributions to explaining travel mode choice. In particular, the estimates reveal that local topography and sidewalk availability are significantly associated with the attractiveness of non-motorized modes. Point elasticities are provided and recommendations given regarding the importance of incorporating non-motorized modes into local transportation planning and in the study of how the built environment influences travel behavior.

Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban design, transport planning, transport modelling, land use transport link
[270] Geoff Rose, Heidi Marfutt, and Phil Harbutt. Using a “ride to work” day event as a travel behaviour change initiative. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[271] T. Rossi and T.K. Lawton et al. Revision of travel demand models to enable analysis of atypical land use patterns. Technical report, Cambridge Systematics Inc. and Metropolitan Service District, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[272] A. Russell. Selling the cycle habit. Surveyor magazine, October 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[273] T.J. Ryley. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists: The role of central cycle lane approaches and signal timings. Technical Report TRL181, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[274] T.J. Ryley and D.G. Davies. Further developments in the design of contra-flow cycling schemes. Technical Report 358, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 1998. [ bib ]
This research investigates the safety implications and practical methods of allowing contra-flow cycling in one-way streets in the UK. Five `alternative' contra-flow cycle schemes (ie schemes not including a mandatory cycle lane or physical segregation) were examined. Video filming and interviews with cyclists were used to collect data from the sites. The results were supplemented by data supplied by the local authority responsible for the schemes; this data included vehicle speeds and reported accidents. The schemes appeared to operate safely, supporting the wider use of alternative contra-flow cycle schemes in the UK. Design advice is proposed on how this can be best achieved. Important factors to consider when designing contra-flow schemes are motor vehicle flows, motor vehicle speeds, delivery vehicles, parking and side roads.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[275] Kjartan Sælensminde. Cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks taking into account insecurity, health effects and external costs of motorized traffic. Transportation Research A, 38:593-606, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: finance, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, active transportation
[276] Kjartan Sælensminde and Rune Elvik. A method for setting priorities for measures designed for pedestrians and cyclists: criteria and guidelines. Technical report, Transportøkonomisk institutt (Institute of Transport Economics), Oslo, Norway, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, prioritisation
[277] Jaana Salo. Conditions related to cycling and planning parking facilities for bicycles. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle parking
[278] W. Salomons. Evaluatie CPVC-OFOS in Enschede (evaluation of CPVC-model OFOS in Enschede). Verkeerskunde, 36(7-1985), 1985. Department of Transport translation 3269. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[279] Paul Schimek. The dilemmas of bicycle planning. In Presented at the Association of Collegiate Schools of Planning and Association of European Schools of Planning Joint International Conference, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 1996. [ bib | .html ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[280] W.L. Schwartz, C.D. Porter, G.C. Payne, J.H. Suhrbier, P.C. Moe, and W.L. Wilkinson III. Guidebook on methods to estimate non-motorized travel: Overview of methods. Technical Report FHWA-RD-98-165, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, 1999. [ bib | http ]
This guidebook provides a means for practitioners to better understand and estimate bicycle and pedestrian travel and to address transportation planning needs. The guidebook describes and compares the various methods that can be used to forecast non-motorized travel demand or that otherwise support the prioritization and analyses of non-motorized projects. These methods are categorized according to four major purposes: (1) demand estimation; (2) relative demand potential; (3) supply quality analysis; and (4) supporting tools and techniques. Discrete choice models, regional travel models, sketch plan methods, facility demand potential, bicycle compatibility measures, and geographic information systems are among the methods and tools described.

Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[281] Kevan Shafizadeh and Debbie Niemeier. Bicycle journey-to-work: Travel behavior characteristics and spatial attributes. Transportation Research Record, 1578:84-90, 1997. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[282] R. Sharples. Modelling cyclists in SATURN. Traffic Engineering and Control, 34:472-475, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[283] Q. Shen. Urban transportation in Shanghai, China: Problems and planning implications. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 21(4):589-606, 1997. [ bib ]
According to Cer98, this paper says that bicycles are the most efficient mode for trips under 14km in Shanghai
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning
[284] Graham Paul Smith. Homezones and traffic calming: implications for cyclists. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 5, pages 72-85. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

 ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, traffic calming
[285] Ryan Snyder. Models, shmodels: Why can't we accept the reality of uncertainty? In Proceedings of Pro Walk/Pro Bike 2004, Victoria, BC, Canada, 2004. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, transport modelling
[286] A. Sorton and T.W. Walsh. Bicycle stress level as a tool to evaluate urban and suburban bicycle compatability. Transportation Research Record, 1438:17-24, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[287] Norm Steinman and Keith Hines. A methodology to assess design features for pedestrian and bicyclist crossings at signalized intersections. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 2004. [ bib | DOI | .pdf ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[288] Monique A. Stinson and Chandra R. Bhat. Commuter bicyclist route choice: Analysis using a stated preference survey. Transportation Research Record, 1828:107-115, 2003. [ bib ]
The importance of factors affecting commuter bicyclists' route choices was evaluated. Both route-level (e.g., travel time) and link-level (e.g., pavement quality) factors are examined. Empirical models are estimated using data from a stated preference survey conducted via the Internet. The models indicate that, for commuter bicyclists, travel time is the most important factor in choosing a route. Presence of a bicycle facility ( especially a bike lane or separate path), the level of automobile traffic, pavement or riding surface quality, and presence of a bicycle facility on a bridge are also very important determinants. Furthermore, there are policy implications of these results for bicycle facility planning.

Keywords: bicycle planning
[289] Monique A. Stinson and Chandra R. Bhat. Frequency of bicycle commuting: Internet-based survey analysis. Transportation Research Record, 1878, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[290] Heikki Summala, Eerao Pasanen, Mikki Räsänen, and Jukka Sievänen. Bicycle accidents and drivers' visual search at left and right turns. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28(2):147-153, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[291] Åse Svensson. Arterial Streets for people: Guidance for planners and decision makers when reconstructing arterial streets. Technical report, ARTISTS Consortium, Malmö, Sweden, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, urban planning, urban design, street design, streets
[292] Dean B. Taylor and W. Jeffrey Davis. Review of basic research in bicycle traffic science, traffic operations, and facility design. Transportation Research Record, 1674:102-110, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[293] Dean B. Taylor and Hani S. Mahmassani. Intermodal bicycle/transit mode choice: survey and nested logit choice model. Project 60056/465570, Center for Transportation Research, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, intermodal, transit
[294] Dean B. Taylor and Hani S. Mahmassani. Analysis of stated preferences for intermodal bicycle-transit interfaces. Transportation Research Record, 1556:86-95, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, intermodal
[295] Dean B. Taylor and Hani S. Mahmassani. Coordinating traffic signals for bicycle progression. Transportation Research Record, 1705:85-92, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[296] R.G. Thom and A.M. Clayton. Low-cost opportunities for making cities bicycle-friendly based on a case study analysis of cyclists' behaviour and accidents. Transportation Research Record, 1372, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[297] M. Thomas. Copenhagen city of cyclists. Technical report, Municipality of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[298] N.Y. Tilahun, David M. Levinson, and Kevin J. Krizek. Trails, lanes or traffic: Valuing bicycle facilities with an adapted stated preference survey. Transportation Research A, 41(4):287-301, May 2007. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[299] Rodney Tolley, editor. The greening of urban transportation: planning for walking and cycling in Western cities. Woodhead Publishers, Cambridge, UK, 3rd edition, 2003. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[300] Rodney Tolley and Rachel Goodman. Sustainable transport: prospects for walking and cycling in Great Britain. Geography, 86(1):84-88, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[301] Rodney Tolley and Les Lumsdon. The National Cycle Strategy in the UK: to what extent have local authorities adopted its model strategy approach? Journal of Transport Geography, 9:293-301, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[302] David Tomlinson. Conflicts between cyclists and motorists in Toronto, Canada. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
A good analysis of 2600 collisions over a two-year period. Valuable insight in a typical Canadian context. See also full report (CT03).
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[303] TransLink. Cycling performance scorecard. Technical report, TransLink, Vancouver, BC, Canada, June 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: canada, data, bicycle planning
[304] Transport 2000 Trust. A safer journey to school: A guide for school communities. Technical report, Transport 2000 Trust, London, UK, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[305] Transport for London Street Management. A business case for cycling and evaluation of the impacts of cycling in London. Technical report, Transport for London, London, UK, January 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very ambitious bicycle plan, and with a rare application of cost/benefit analysis to cycling (instead of highways), showing reasonable benefits, even with major potential benefits excluded (health, reduced parking costs).
Keywords: bicycle planning, finance
[306] Transport for London Street Management. Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs): Background and research studies. In Proceedings of Velo-City 2005, Dublin, Ireland, June 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very useful overview of London-based research on advanced stop lines (aka bike boxes) to give cyclists priority at intersections.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[307] Transport for London Street Management. London cycling design standards. Technical report, Transport for London, London, UK, June 2005. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[308] J. Tschopp. Bike and ride and the introduction of the green reduction card: Basle, a success story in stimulating use of public transport and the bike. In Proceedings of Velo-City 1987, Groningen, The Netherlands, 1988. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[309] J. Tschopp. Massnahmen für den Veloverkehr, Herzogenbuchsee. Technical report, Verkehrs-Club der Schweiz (VCS), Basel, Switzerland, 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[310] Jeff Turner, Margaret Grieco, and E.A. Kwakye. Subverting sustainability? infrastructural and cultural barriers to cycle use in Accra. World Transport Policy and Practice, 2(3):18-23, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, sociology
[311] Patricia A. Turner, Chris Simek, and Michael B. Greenman. Exploring collision exposure for bicyclists and pedestrians in florida. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[312] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Vienna convention on road signs and signals. Technical report, United Nations, November 1968. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: law, bicycle planning
[313] United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. Vienna convention on road traffic. Technical report, United Nations, November 1968. [ bib | .pdf ]
A nice document, but sadly not ratified by Canada or the U.S. As suggested by the fact that it's a European convention, it's mostly ratified by European countries, plus a few African ones. Canada did ratify the 1949 convention, though.
Keywords: law, bicycle planning
[314] Richard K. Untermann. Accommodating the Pedestrian: Adapting towns and neighborhoods for Walking and Bicycling. Von Nostrand Reinhold, New York City, NY, USA, 1984. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[315] Richard K. Untermann. Accomodating the pedestrian: adapting towns and neighborhoods for walking and bicycling. In Personal Travel in the US, Volume II, A Report of the Findings from 1983-1984 NPTS, Source Control Programs. U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., USA, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[316] U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Development of the bicycle compatibility index: a level of service concept. Technical Report FHWA-RD-98-072, U.S. Department of Transportation, Washington, D.C., USA, 1998. [ bib | .html ]
A very interesting study, with a good methodology for determining cyclist comfort. It'd be nice to see this done with some leading-edge designs, like bike boxes or coloured asphalt. The intserection pilot study is also interesting, but inconclusive with respect to design-they only tested 19 sites, which really doesn't seem sufficient to cover the gamut of possible designs. The photographs they showed were predominantly suburban settings, which isn't very helpful in a typical urban Canadian context.
Keywords: bicycle planning
[317] U.S. Federal Highway Administration. Guidebook on methods to estimate non-motorized travel: Supporting documentation. Technical Report FHWA-RD-98-166, U.S. Department of Transportation, 1999. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: transport planning, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning
[318] Peter van der Waerden, Aloys Borgers, and Harry J.P. Timmermans. Cyclists' perception and evaluation of street characteristics. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[319] Vélo Québec. Bicycling in Quebec in 2000. Technical report, Vélo Québec, Montreal, QC, Canada, October 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[320] Vélo Québec. L'état du vélo au Qu'ebec en 2000 (Bicycling in Quebec in 2000). Technical report, Vélo Québec, Montreal, QC, Canada, October 2001. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[321] Vélo Québec. Le vélo au centre-ville: le cas de dix villes in Europe et en Amérique. Technical report, Vélo Québec, Montreal, QC, Canada, March 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, canada
[322] Vic Roads. Coloured surface treatments for bicycle lanes. Cycle Notes 14, Vic Roads, Melbourne, Australia, April 2005. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring
[323] Martin Wachs. Creating political pressure for cycling. Transportation Quarterly, 52(1):6-8, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[324] Alan Wachtel, John Forester, and D. Pelz. Signal clearance timing for bicyclists. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 65(3), 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[325] Alan Wachtel and D. Lewiston. Risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 64(9):30-35, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[326] Lal C. Wadhwa and Matthew Faichney. Enhancing safety for cyclists through infrastructure design. In Proceedings of the 25th Australasian Transport Research Forum, Canberra, Australia, October 2002. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[327] J.A. Waldman. Cycling in towns: A quantitative investigation. LTR 1 Working Paper 3, Department of Transport, London, UK, 1977. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[328] Ian Walker. Drivers overtaking bicyclists: Objective data on the effects of riding position, helmet use, vehicle type and apparent gender. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(2):417-425, March 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
A naturalistic experiment used an instrumented bicycle to gather proximity data from overtaking motorists. The relationship between rider position and overtaking proximity was the opposite to that generally believed, such that the further the rider was from the edge of the road, the closer vehicles passed. Additionally, wearing a bicycle helmet led to traffic getting significantly closer when overtaking. Professional drivers of large vehicles were particularly likely to leave narrow safety margins. Finally, when the (male) experimenter wore a long wig, so that he appeared female from behind, drivers left more space when passing. Overall, the results demonstrate that motorists exhibit behavioural sensitivity to aspects of a bicyclist's appearance during an encounter. In the light of previous research on drivers2019 attitudes to bicyclists, we suggest drivers approaching a bicyclist use physical appearance to judge the specific likelihood of the rider behaving predictably and alter their overtaking accordingly. However, the extent to which a bicyclist's moment-to-moment behaviour can be inferred from their appearance is questionable, and so the tendency for drivers to alter their passing proximity based on this appearance probably has implications for accident probability.

Keywords: bicycle collisions, bicycle planning
[329] G.T. Wall, D.G. Davies, and M. Crabtree. Capacity implications of Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists. Technical Report TRL585, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, London, UK, 2003. [ bib | http ]
An investigation of the capacity implications of installing Advanced Stop Lines (ASLs) has been carried out by TRL Limited as part of a project entitled Cycling Facilities and Engineering, commissioned by the Charging and Local Transport Division of the Department for Transport. The study included a review of previous research into ASLs in the UK and in the Netherlands; an examination of the theoretical capacity implications of installing ASLs using OSCADY (Optimised Signal Capacity and Delay) the signal-controlled junction modelling computer programme and saturation flow formulae; `before' and `after' video surveys of modified junctions at four sites in Guildford, Surrey, and questionnaires to examine the attitudes of cyclists. While cyclists generally thought that the ASLs were safer and easier to use than unadapted junctions, concerns were expressed that some drivers did not comply with the new layout. Changes in the length of time between green signals or a longer minimum green time may be required in some circumstances. At the two sites where the number of traffic lanes remained the same there was a slight increase in saturation flow, but at the two sites where a traffic lane was removed large reductions in saturation flow were observed. This report of the study concludes with several recommendations.

A valuable source, particularly for its review of Dutch literature on bike boxes. They find that adding a bike box with a 5m deep reservoir for a bike box has no effect on an intersection's motor vehicle capacity, unless a lane must be removed to make room for the bike box.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[330] J. Wang and H. Wei. Traffic segregation on spatial and temporal bases: The experience of bicycle traffic operations in China. Transportation Research Record, 1396:11-17, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation
[331] Mark Wardman, R. Hatfield, and Matthew Page. The UK national cycling strategy: Can improved facilities meet the targets? Transport Policy, 4(2):123-133, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[332] Mark Wardman, Matthew Page, and Miles Tight. Cycling and urban mode choice. In Proceedings of the 9th World Conference on Transport Research, Seoul, Korea, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[333] Mark Wardman, Miles Tight, and Matthew Page. Factors influencing the propensity to cycle to work. Transportation Research A, 41:339-350, 2007. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle modelling
[334] A.G. Welleman. The Netherlands national cycling policy and facilities for cyclists at signalled junctions. paper given to meeting, The Local Authorities Cycle Planning Group, York, UK, May 1991. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[335] Ton Welleman. An efficient means of transport: experiences with cycling policy in the Netherlands. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 12, pages 192-208. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[336] Ralph L. Wessels. Bicycling collisions in Washington state: A six-year perspective, 1988-1993. Transportation Research Record, 1538:81-90, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[337] A.H. Wheeler. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists at Oxford, Newark and Bristol. Research Report RR336, Transport Research Laboratory Limited, Crawthorne, UK, 1992. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[338] A.H. Wheeler. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists: A simplified layout. Traffic Engineering and Control, 36(5):283-289, May 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[339] A.H. Wheeler, M.A.A. Leicester, and G. Underwood. Advanced Stop Lines for cyclists at Oxford, Newark and Bristol. Traffic Engineering and Control, 34(2):54-60, February 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box
[340] James Williams and Jan Larson. Promoting bicycle commuting: Understanding the customer. Transportation Quarterly, 50(3):67-78, Summer 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[341] John Williams, Tom Walsh, David Harkey, Glenn Grigg, and Todd Litman. Wisconsin bicycle facility design handbook. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very good, modern approach to bicycle facility design, from a North American perspective. Some really excellent diagrams of traffic calming designs; a good description of right-turn conflicts (p. 3-20).
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls
[342] Meghan Winters, Melissa C. Friesen, Mieke Koehoorn, and Kay Teschke. Utilitarian bicycling: A multilevel analysis and personal influences. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 32(1), 2007. [ bib | DOI | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation
[343] Frank Witlox and Hans Tindemans. Evaluating bicycle-car transport mode competitiveness in an urban environment: An activity-based approach. World Transport Policy and Practice, 8(4), 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[344] Katie N. Womack. Bicycle-helmet use evaluation using comparison-site observation. Transportation Research Record, 1538:91-95, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[345] P. Wramborg. On a new approach to urban planning, traffic network and street design with a special focus on bicycling. In Proceedings of Velo-City 99, Graz, Austria, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[346] Michael Yeates. Making space for cyclists: a matter of speed? In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 4, pages 50-71. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning
[347] John Zacharias. Non-motorized transportation in four Shanghai districts. International Planning Studies, 10(3/4):323-340, 2005. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning
[348] Andrzej Zalewski. Traffic calming on the national road network to improve cycling conditions in small towns in Poland: the case of Kobylnica Slupska on National Road 21. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 15, pages 237-250. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

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Keywords: bicycle planning, traffic calming
[349] C.V. Zeeger, M. Cynecki, J. Fegan, B. Gilleran, P. Lagerway, C. Tan, and B. Works. FHWA study tour for pedestrian and bicyclist safety in England, Germany, and the Netherlands. Technical Report FHWA-PL-95-006, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning
[350] A.I. Zlot and T.L. Schmidt. Relationships among community characteristics and walking and bicycling for transportation or recreation. American Journal of Health Promotion, 19:315-317, 2005. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, active transportation

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