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@comment{{Command line: /usr/bin/bib2bib -ob keyword_bicycle_collisions.bib -c 'keywords: "bicycle collisions"' ref.bib}}
  author = {Lisa Aultman-Hall and M.~Kaltenecker},
  title = {{T}oronto bicycle commuter safety rates},
  year = 1999,
  month = nov,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 31,
  number = 6,
  pages = {675--686},
  status = {read},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada, toronto},
  annote = {
        Interesting. This is one of the first thorough, scientific attempts
        at understanding cycling collisions that I've seen. The sampling
        methodology is always tricky, and their approach here is certainly
        not perfect. I would have liked to see questions about the type of
        facility where falls/collisions happened in their survey---this
        seems like vital information. The actual dataset also has its
        problems: only a small fraction of total exposure was on paths or
        sidewalks (6\%). Additionally, the study area only contains a small
        amount of path facilities (74km), and from what I know of Toronto
        paths, most were built quite a long time ago and are very poorly
        designed and maintained. Many sections of the Martin Goodman
        waterfront trail were horrific when I rode it to work in 1999, and
        there are some really dodgy sections in the Don Valley system.

        But otherwise, the study methodology is fairly sound, and the
        authors are suitably conservative in their conclusions. I don't
        fully understand their weighting system, but I'll reread that at
        some point.

        Overall, I'd be very hesitant to condemn paths or sidewalks on the
        basis of a study like this. Sidewalks definitely have problems, but
        this study really only shows that badly designed/maintained paths
        are unsafe---not a surprise, really. And it says nothing at all
        about the ``bicycle segregation'' debate, despite popular citations
        on Wikipedia for that purpose.
  author = {{City of Toronto}},
  title = {Bicycle/Motor-Vehicle Collision Study},
  address = {Toronto, ON, Canada},
  institution = {{City of Toronto}},
  year = 2003,
  status = {read},
  url = {},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada},
  annote = {
        An excellent, through report of bicycle/motor vehicle collisions,
        in a Canadian context. See also: Tom00.
  author = {Ronald M.~Davis and Barry Pless},
  title = {{BMJ} Bans "Accidents},
  year = 2001,
  journal = {British Medical Journal},
  volume = 322,
  pages = {1320--1321},
  keywords = {bicycle collisions}
  author = {{Danish Road Directorate}},
  title = {Collection of Cycle Concepts},
  year = 2000,
  status = {read},
  url = {},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bike box, pavement colouring, bicycle segregation, bicycle parking, bicycle collisions, traffic calming},
  institution = {{Danish Road Directorate}},
  address = {Copenhagen, Denmark},
  abstract = {
        Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road
        users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle
        Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of
        bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.

        The growth in car traffic is creating environmental problems
        and congestion. Compared to other countries in Europe traffic
        problems in Denmark are still modest. An important explanation
        for this is the development in the course of the last century
        of a robust bicycle culture. Today, one trip out of five in
        Denmark is by bicycle.

        The future role of the bicycle must also be strong in order to create a
        sustainable society. It is important to develop and infrastructure that
        permits the optimal exploitation of the bicycle's qualities and

        A larger share of the short trips in towns can take place by
        bicycle. The car is often indispensable on longer trips. The
        bicycle can not be alone.  Intermodality is important. The right
        balance of good roads and paths for pedestrians, cyclists and
        motorists can create better towns without losing the interaction
        between modes of transport.

        The bicycle can more often be used as feeder traffic for coach,
        bus, train and plane on longer trips. This calls for safe an
        functional access roads and terminals with good
        possibilities for interchanges.

        Not only road administrations, but also companies, institutions,
        schools associations ets, must contribute to changing our attitudes
        to transport and making it more acceptable to cycle. The
        individual advantages are big. Half an hour's cycling daily
        increases our mean life expectancy by 1--2 years and gives
        better quality of life, both physically and mentally.

        There are many measures that can be taken to improve cyclist
        safety. In spite of this, the accident risk for Danish cyclists has
        not changed over the past 25 years. It is necessary to approach the
        problem more systematically and introduce proposed solutions and
        places and among target groups where they will have the greatest

        The main challenge is promoting more and safer bicycle traffic is
        the need to implement a wide range of measures simultaneously. I
        therefore invite the reader to consider the many ideas contained in
        Collection of Cycle Concepts---and be inspired of those ideas,
        which apply to local conditions.
  annote = {
        This is probably the best bicycle planning guide I've run into so
        far. Throroughly recommended for anyone interested in these issues,
        and for anyone already involved in bicycle planning or advocacy.

        Some of the good stuff: route sweeping, every 2--8 weeks, plus extra
        autumn service to deal with leaves and a special service for
        weekends to deal with broken glass near nightlife zones (p.~123);
        ``cycle crossings,'' where pavement markings are extended through
        an intersection to reduce conflicts with turning motor vehicles
        (p.~89); advanced stop lines; cute advertisements (p.~37); signage
        (pp.~102-105); effect of distance on mode choice (p.~46);
        discussion of the need for small shops (p.~46); graph showing how
        age affects cycling speed and distance (p.~12); wheel ramp on
        stairs (p.~95); bike parking maps (p.~108), with symbols for
        covered/uncovered and number of spaces.
  author = {David Tomlinson},
  title = {Conflicts between Cyclists and Motorists in {T}oronto,
  year = 2000,
  booktitle = {Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000},
  address = {Amsterdam, The Netherlands},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada},
  status = {read},
  url = {},
  annote = {
        A good analysis of 2600 collisions over a two-year period. Valuable
        insight in a typical Canadian context. See also full report (CT03).
  author = {Lisa Aultman-Hall and Michael F.~{Adams~Jr.}},
  title = {Sidewalk Bicycling Safety Issues},
  year = 1998,
  journal = {Transportation Research Record},
  volume = 1636,
  pages = {71--76},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada},
  url = {\%5C1636-011.pdf}
  author = {Lisa Aultman-Hall and Fred Hall},
  title = {{O}ttawa-{C}arleton Commuter Cyclist on and off road
        incident rates},
  year = 1998,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 30,
  pages = {29--43},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada}
  author = {Inger Marie Bernhoft},
  title = {In depth interviews with road users in cyclist accidents},
  year = 1999,
  booktitle = {Proceedings of the 11th International Bicycle Planning
  pages = {63--67},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions},
  address = {Graz, Austria and Maribor, Slovenia}
  author = {Sean T.~Doherty and Lisa Aultman-Hall and Jill Swaynos},
  title = {Commuter Cyclist Accident Patterns in {T}oronto and {O}ttawa},
  year = 2000,
  journal = {Journal of Transportation Engineering},
  month = {Jan/Feb},
  volume = 126,
  number = 1,
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada},
  pages = {21--26},
  abstract = {
        In this study, self-reported cyclist collision and fall information
        from a mail-back questionnaire was analyzed for a sample of
        2,945 adult cyclists who commute to work/school in Toronto and
        Ottawa. Analysis focused on incident frequencies by month, time
        of day, location, road surface condition, and injury level.
        These results are presented in order to provide a valuable
        complement to other sources of bicycle incident data obtained
        primarily from emergency room hospital records. Only a small
        percentage of collision and fall incidents resulted in a major
        injury and would therefore be found in a bicycle accident
        database compiled from emergency room hospital records.
        Slightly more, 19.2 and 11.7\% of the collisions in Ottawa and
        Toronto, respectively, were reported to police. The results of
        the study found that collisions were more sensitive to
        automobile traffic, whereas falls were more sensitive to the
        prevailing roadway surface conditions. There was a higher
        proportion of falls than collisions during the winter months in
        both cities. However, the severity of injuries from collisions
        and falls were fairly consistent across time periods. Even when
        the severity of collisions and falls were considered for
        different roadway environmental conditions and between roads
        and off-road, no difference was found. This analysis suggests
        that minor collisions and falls should be considered in
        accessing the safety experience of bicyclists.
  author = {Rune Elvik},
  title = {Which are the relevant costs and benefits of road safety
        measures designed for pedestrians and cyclists?},
  year = 2000,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 32,
  pages = {37--45},
  keywords = {bicycle collisions, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, finance}
  author = {Rune Elvik},
  title = {Improving road safety in {N}orway and {S}weden: analysing the
        efficiency of policy priorities},
  year = 2001,
  journal = {Traffic Engineering and Control},
  volume = 42,
  number = 1,
  pages = {9--16},
  keywords = {prioritisation, streets, bicycle collisions}
  author = {Rune Elvik},
  title = {Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of
        safety effects},
  year = 2001,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 33,
  pages = {327--336},
  keywords = {pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, traffic calming, bicycle collisions}
  author = {K.~Gilbert and M.~Mc{C}arthy},
  title = {Deaths of cyclists in {L}ondon 1985--92: the hazards of road
  year = 1994,
  month = jun,
  journal = {British Medical Journal},
  volume = 308,
  pages = {1534--1537},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions}
  author = {William W.~Hunter and Jane C.~Stutts and W.~Pein and C.~Cox},
  title = {Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Types of the Early 1990s},
  institution = {Federal Highway Administration},
  year = 1996,
  number = {FHWA-RD-95-163},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning},
  address = {McLean, VA}
  author = {S{\o}ren Underlien Jensen},
  title = {{DUMAS}: Safety of pedestrians and two-wheelers},
  year = 1998,
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning},
  type = {Note},
  number = 51,
  institution = {Vejdirektoratet},
  address = {Copenhagen, Denmark}
  author = {S{\o}ren Underlien Jensen},
  title = {Effekter af overk{\o}rsler og bl{\aa} cykelfelter},
  year = 2006,
  institution = {Trafitec},
  address = {Copenhagen, Denmark},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, pavement colouring, bicycle collisions},
  url = {}
  author = {S{\o}ren Underline Jensen and Claus Rosenkilde and Niels
  title = {Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in
  year = 2006,
  institution = {European Cyclists' Federation},
  address = {Copenhagen, Denmark},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pavement colouring, bike box},
  url = {},
  abstract = {
        This before-and-after study covers the construction of one-way cycle
        tracks and lanes, blue cycle crossings and raised exits. It is the
        biggest study of its kind so far carried out in Denmark. The effects on
        road safety of all types of traffic both at junctions and on road
        sections for both accidents and injuries are examined. The effects on
        the volumes of motor vehicles as well as on bicycle and moped traffic
        are examined with regard to the construction of one way cycle tracks
        and lanes. Lastly, cycle facilities impact on cyclists? perceived risk
        and satisfaction on road sections and at junctions is also examined.
  author = {William J.~Lucas},
  title = {A report on cycling fatalities in {T}oronto 1986--1996:
        recommendations for reducing cycling injuries and death},
  year = 1998,
  month = jul,
  institution = {Office of the Regional Coroner for Toronto},
  address = {Toronto, ON, Canada},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada},
  url = {}
  author = {John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra},
  title = {Making walking and cycling safer: lessons from {E}urope},
  journal = {Transportation Quarterly},
  volume = 54,
  number = 3,
  year = 2000,
  month = {Summer},
  pages = {25--50},
  keywords = {pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, bicycle collisions},
  url = {}
  author = {J.~Seymour},
  title = {A New Epidemic of Accidents},
  year = 1996,
  journal = {World Press Review},
  volume = 43,
  number = 12,
  pages = {8--9},
  keywords = {bicycle collisions}
  author = {Heikki Summala and Eerao Pasanen and Mikki R{\"a}s{\"a}nen
        and Jukka Siev{\"a}nen},
  title = {Bicycle accidents and drivers' visual search at left and right
  year = 1996,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 28,
  number = 2,
  pages = {147--153},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions}
  author = {Alan Wachtel and D.~Lewiston},
  title = {Risk Factors for Bicycle-Motor Vehicle Collisions at
  year = 1994,
  journal = {Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal},
  volume = 64,
  number = 9,
  pages = {30--35},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions}
  author = {Ian Walker},
  title = {Drivers overtaking bicyclists: Objective data on the effects
        of riding position, helmet use, vehicle type and apparent gender},
  year = 2007,
  month = mar,
  journal = {Accident Analysis and Prevention},
  volume = 39,
  number = 2,
  pages = {417--425},
  keywords = {bicycle collisions, bicycle planning},
  doi = {10.1016/j.aap.2006.08.010},
  abstract = {
        A naturalistic experiment used an instrumented bicycle to gather
        proximity data from overtaking motorists. The relationship between
        rider position and overtaking proximity was the opposite to that
        generally believed, such that the further the rider was from the
        edge of the road, the closer vehicles passed. Additionally, wearing
        a bicycle helmet led to traffic getting significantly closer when
        overtaking. Professional drivers of large vehicles were
        particularly likely to leave narrow safety margins. Finally, when
        the (male) experimenter wore a long wig, so that he appeared female
        from behind, drivers left more space when passing. Overall, the
        results demonstrate that motorists exhibit behavioural sensitivity
        to aspects of a bicyclist's appearance during an encounter. In the
        light of previous research on drivers\u2019 attitudes to
        bicyclists, we suggest drivers approaching a bicyclist use physical
        appearance to judge the specific likelihood of the rider behaving
        predictably and alter their overtaking accordingly. However, the
        extent to which a bicyclist's moment-to-moment behaviour can be
        inferred from their appearance is questionable, and so the tendency
        for drivers to alter their passing proximity based on this
        appearance probably has implications for accident probability.
  author = {Ralph L.~Wessels},
  title = {Bicycling Collisions in {W}ashington State: A six-year
        perspective, 1988--1993},
  year = 1996,
  journal = {Transportation Research Record},
  volume = 1538,
  pages = {81--90},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, bicycle collisions},
  url = {\%5C1538-011.pdf}
  author = {{World Health Organization}},
  title = {The World Health Report: Bridging the Gaps},
  year = 1995,
  institution = {World Health Organization},
  address = {Geneva, Switzerland},
  keywords = {bicycle collisions}

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