david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "bicycle collisions"

[1] Lisa Aultman-Hall and Michael F. Adams Jr. Sidewalk bicycling safety issues. Transportation Research Record, 1636:71-76, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[2] Lisa Aultman-Hall and Fred Hall. Ottawa-Carleton commuter cyclist on and off road incident rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 30:29-43, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[3] Lisa Aultman-Hall and M. Kaltenecker. Toronto bicycle commuter safety rates. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 31(6):675-686, November 1999. [ bib ]
Interesting. This is one of the first thorough, scientific attempts at understanding cycling collisions that I've seen. The sampling methodology is always tricky, and their approach here is certainly not perfect. I would have liked to see questions about the type of facility where falls/collisions happened in their survey-this seems like vital information. The actual dataset also has its problems: only a small fraction of total exposure was on paths or sidewalks (6%). Additionally, the study area only contains a small amount of path facilities (74km), and from what I know of Toronto paths, most were built quite a long time ago and are very poorly designed and maintained. Many sections of the Martin Goodman waterfront trail were horrific when I rode it to work in 1999, and there are some really dodgy sections in the Don Valley system.

But otherwise, the study methodology is fairly sound, and the authors are suitably conservative in their conclusions. I don't fully understand their weighting system, but I'll reread that at some point.

Overall, I'd be very hesitant to condemn paths or sidewalks on the basis of a study like this. Sidewalks definitely have problems, but this study really only shows that badly designed/maintained paths are unsafe-not a surprise, really. And it says nothing at all about the “bicycle segregation” debate, despite popular citations on Wikipedia for that purpose.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada, toronto
[4] Inger Marie Bernhoft. In depth interviews with road users in cyclist accidents. In Proceedings of the 11th International Bicycle Planning Conference, pages 63-67, Graz, Austria and Maribor, Slovenia, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[5] City of Toronto. Bicycle/motor-vehicle collision study. Technical report, City of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
An excellent, through report of bicycle/motor vehicle collisions, in a Canadian context. See also: Tom00.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[6] Danish Road Directorate. Collection of cycle concepts. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.

The growth in car traffic is creating environmental problems and congestion. Compared to other countries in Europe traffic problems in Denmark are still modest. An important explanation for this is the development in the course of the last century of a robust bicycle culture. Today, one trip out of five in Denmark is by bicycle.

The future role of the bicycle must also be strong in order to create a sustainable society. It is important to develop and infrastructure that permits the optimal exploitation of the bicycle's qualities and possibilities.

A larger share of the short trips in towns can take place by bicycle. The car is often indispensable on longer trips. The bicycle can not be alone. Intermodality is important. The right balance of good roads and paths for pedestrians, cyclists and motorists can create better towns without losing the interaction between modes of transport.

The bicycle can more often be used as feeder traffic for coach, bus, train and plane on longer trips. This calls for safe an functional access roads and terminals with good possibilities for interchanges.

Not only road administrations, but also companies, institutions, schools associations ets, must contribute to changing our attitudes to transport and making it more acceptable to cycle. The individual advantages are big. Half an hour's cycling daily increases our mean life expectancy by 1-2 years and gives better quality of life, both physically and mentally.

There are many measures that can be taken to improve cyclist safety. In spite of this, the accident risk for Danish cyclists has not changed over the past 25 years. It is necessary to approach the problem more systematically and introduce proposed solutions and places and among target groups where they will have the greatest impact.

The main challenge is promoting more and safer bicycle traffic is the need to implement a wide range of measures simultaneously. I therefore invite the reader to consider the many ideas contained in Collection of Cycle Concepts-and be inspired of those ideas, which apply to local conditions.

This is probably the best bicycle planning guide I've run into so far. Throroughly recommended for anyone interested in these issues, and for anyone already involved in bicycle planning or advocacy.

Some of the good stuff: route sweeping, every 2-8 weeks, plus extra autumn service to deal with leaves and a special service for weekends to deal with broken glass near nightlife zones (p. 123); “cycle crossings,” where pavement markings are extended through an intersection to reduce conflicts with turning motor vehicles (p. 89); advanced stop lines; cute advertisements (p. 37); signage (pp. 102-105); effect of distance on mode choice (p. 46); discussion of the need for small shops (p. 46); graph showing how age affects cycling speed and distance (p. 12); wheel ramp on stairs (p. 95); bike parking maps (p. 108), with symbols for covered/uncovered and number of spaces.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box, pavement colouring, bicycle segregation, bicycle parking, bicycle collisions, traffic calming
[7] Ronald M. Davis and Barry Pless. BMJ bans "accidents. British Medical Journal, 322:1320-1321, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle collisions
[8] Sean T. Doherty, Lisa Aultman-Hall, and Jill Swaynos. Commuter cyclist accident patterns in Toronto and Ottawa. Journal of Transportation Engineering, 126(1):21-26, Jan/Feb 2000. [ bib ]
In this study, self-reported cyclist collision and fall information from a mail-back questionnaire was analyzed for a sample of 2,945 adult cyclists who commute to work/school in Toronto and Ottawa. Analysis focused on incident frequencies by month, time of day, location, road surface condition, and injury level. These results are presented in order to provide a valuable complement to other sources of bicycle incident data obtained primarily from emergency room hospital records. Only a small percentage of collision and fall incidents resulted in a major injury and would therefore be found in a bicycle accident database compiled from emergency room hospital records. Slightly more, 19.2 and 11.7% of the collisions in Ottawa and Toronto, respectively, were reported to police. The results of the study found that collisions were more sensitive to automobile traffic, whereas falls were more sensitive to the prevailing roadway surface conditions. There was a higher proportion of falls than collisions during the winter months in both cities. However, the severity of injuries from collisions and falls were fairly consistent across time periods. Even when the severity of collisions and falls were considered for different roadway environmental conditions and between roads and off-road, no difference was found. This analysis suggests that minor collisions and falls should be considered in accessing the safety experience of bicyclists.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[9] Rune Elvik. Which are the relevant costs and benefits of road safety measures designed for pedestrians and cyclists? Accident Analysis and Prevention, 32:37-45, 2000. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle collisions, bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, finance
[10] Rune Elvik. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of safety effects. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33:327-336, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, traffic calming, bicycle collisions
[11] Rune Elvik. Improving road safety in Norway and Sweden: analysing the efficiency of policy priorities. Traffic Engineering and Control, 42(1):9-16, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: prioritisation, streets, bicycle collisions
[12] K. Gilbert and M. McCarthy. Deaths of cyclists in London 1985-92: the hazards of road traffic. British Medical Journal, 308:1534-1537, June 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[13] William W. Hunter, Jane C. Stutts, W. Pein, and C. Cox. Pedestrian and bicycle crash types of the early 1990s. Technical Report FHWA-RD-95-163, Federal Highway Administration, McLean, VA, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning
[14] Søren Underlien Jensen. DUMAS: Safety of pedestrians and two-wheelers. Note 51, Vejdirektoratet, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1998. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pedestrian planning
[15] Søren Underlien Jensen. Effekter af overkørsler og blå cykelfelter. Technical report, Trafitec, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement colouring, bicycle collisions
[16] Søren Underline Jensen, Claus Rosenkilde, and Niels Jensen. Road safety and perceived risk of cycle facilities in Copenhagen. Technical report, European Cyclists' Federation, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2006. [ bib | .pdf ]
This before-and-after study covers the construction of one-way cycle tracks and lanes, blue cycle crossings and raised exits. It is the biggest study of its kind so far carried out in Denmark. The effects on road safety of all types of traffic both at junctions and on road sections for both accidents and injuries are examined. The effects on the volumes of motor vehicles as well as on bicycle and moped traffic are examined with regard to the construction of one way cycle tracks and lanes. Lastly, cycle facilities impact on cyclists? perceived risk and satisfaction on road sections and at junctions is also examined.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, pavement colouring, bike box
[17] William J. Lucas. A report on cycling fatalities in Toronto 1986-1996: recommendations for reducing cycling injuries and death. Technical report, Office of the Regional Coroner for Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada, July 1998. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[18] John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra. Making walking and cycling safer: lessons from Europe. Transportation Quarterly, 54(3):25-50, Summer 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[19] J. Seymour. A new epidemic of accidents. World Press Review, 43(12):8-9, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle collisions
[20] Heikki Summala, Eerao Pasanen, Mikki Räsänen, and Jukka Sievänen. Bicycle accidents and drivers' visual search at left and right turns. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 28(2):147-153, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[21] David Tomlinson. Conflicts between cyclists and motorists in Toronto, Canada. In Proceedings of Velo Mondiale 2000, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2000. [ bib | .PDF ]
A good analysis of 2600 collisions over a two-year period. Valuable insight in a typical Canadian context. See also full report (CT03).
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions, canada
[22] Alan Wachtel and D. Lewiston. Risk factors for bicycle-motor vehicle collisions at intersections. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 64(9):30-35, 1994. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[23] Ian Walker. Drivers overtaking bicyclists: Objective data on the effects of riding position, helmet use, vehicle type and apparent gender. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 39(2):417-425, March 2007. [ bib | DOI ]
A naturalistic experiment used an instrumented bicycle to gather proximity data from overtaking motorists. The relationship between rider position and overtaking proximity was the opposite to that generally believed, such that the further the rider was from the edge of the road, the closer vehicles passed. Additionally, wearing a bicycle helmet led to traffic getting significantly closer when overtaking. Professional drivers of large vehicles were particularly likely to leave narrow safety margins. Finally, when the (male) experimenter wore a long wig, so that he appeared female from behind, drivers left more space when passing. Overall, the results demonstrate that motorists exhibit behavioural sensitivity to aspects of a bicyclist's appearance during an encounter. In the light of previous research on drivers2019 attitudes to bicyclists, we suggest drivers approaching a bicyclist use physical appearance to judge the specific likelihood of the rider behaving predictably and alter their overtaking accordingly. However, the extent to which a bicyclist's moment-to-moment behaviour can be inferred from their appearance is questionable, and so the tendency for drivers to alter their passing proximity based on this appearance probably has implications for accident probability.

Keywords: bicycle collisions, bicycle planning
[24] Ralph L. Wessels. Bicycling collisions in Washington state: A six-year perspective, 1988-1993. Transportation Research Record, 1538:81-90, 1996. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle collisions
[25] World Health Organization. The world health report: Bridging the gaps. Technical report, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995. [ bib ]
Keywords: bicycle collisions

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