First and foremost, my supervisor Eric Miller has been a source of invaluable training, wisdom, discussion and insight throughout this thesis. Matt Roorda also provided useful suggestions for tackling the real-world issues encountered in this work. I owe Laine Ruus a great debt for digging up the historical data that was required for the thesis. This research builds on the foundations laid by others, particularly Paul Salvini and Juan Carrasco. Finally, I am grateful for fruitful conversations with fellow students, particularly Bilal Farooq and David McElroy.

To Josie, an especially warm thanks for technical discussions, interdisciplinary asides and moral support through an intense year of research.

Finally, my degree at the University of Toronto was supported by scholarships from the Ontario Graduate Scholarship program and the Transportation Association of Canada.