david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "traffic calming"

[1] Donald Appleyard. Livable Streets. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA, USA, 1981. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban design, streets, street design, traffic calming
[2] Danish Road Directorate. Collection of cycle concepts. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2000. [ bib | .pdf ]
Promotion of more and safer bicycle traffic produces healthier road users and helps to create better towns. Collection of Cycle Concepts presents some ideas on how to increase the use of bicycles and how to prevent bicycle accidents.

The growth in car traffic is creating environmental problems and congestion. Compared to other countries in Europe traffic problems in Denmark are still modest. An important explanation for this is the development in the course of the last century of a robust bicycle culture. Today, one trip out of five in Denmark is by bicycle.

The future role of the bicycle must also be strong in order to create a sustainable society. It is important to develop and infrastructure that permits the optimal exploitation of the bicycle's qualities and possibilities.

A larger share of the short trips in towns can take place by bicycle. The car is often indispensable on longer trips. The bicycle can not be alone. Intermodality is important. The right balance of good roads and paths for pedestrians, cyclists and motorists can create better towns without losing the interaction between modes of transport.

The bicycle can more often be used as feeder traffic for coach, bus, train and plane on longer trips. This calls for safe an functional access roads and terminals with good possibilities for interchanges.

Not only road administrations, but also companies, institutions, schools associations ets, must contribute to changing our attitudes to transport and making it more acceptable to cycle. The individual advantages are big. Half an hour's cycling daily increases our mean life expectancy by 1-2 years and gives better quality of life, both physically and mentally.

There are many measures that can be taken to improve cyclist safety. In spite of this, the accident risk for Danish cyclists has not changed over the past 25 years. It is necessary to approach the problem more systematically and introduce proposed solutions and places and among target groups where they will have the greatest impact.

The main challenge is promoting more and safer bicycle traffic is the need to implement a wide range of measures simultaneously. I therefore invite the reader to consider the many ideas contained in Collection of Cycle Concepts-and be inspired of those ideas, which apply to local conditions.

This is probably the best bicycle planning guide I've run into so far. Throroughly recommended for anyone interested in these issues, and for anyone already involved in bicycle planning or advocacy.

Some of the good stuff: route sweeping, every 2-8 weeks, plus extra autumn service to deal with leaves and a special service for weekends to deal with broken glass near nightlife zones (p. 123); “cycle crossings,” where pavement markings are extended through an intersection to reduce conflicts with turning motor vehicles (p. 89); advanced stop lines; cute advertisements (p. 37); signage (pp. 102-105); effect of distance on mode choice (p. 46); discussion of the need for small shops (p. 46); graph showing how age affects cycling speed and distance (p. 12); wheel ramp on stairs (p. 95); bike parking maps (p. 108), with symbols for covered/uncovered and number of spaces.

Keywords: bicycle planning, bike box, pavement colouring, bicycle segregation, bicycle parking, bicycle collisions, traffic calming
[3] Gavin Davidson. Area wide traffic management: A strategy for improving the economic, social and environmental health of urban centers. Master's thesis, Simon Fraser University, School of Resource and Environmental Management, Burnaby, BC, Canada, 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, traffic calming, canada
[4] Rune Elvik. Area-wide urban traffic calming schemes: a meta-analysis of safety effects. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 33:327-336, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, traffic calming, bicycle collisions
[5] Reid Ewing. Traffic calming: State of the practice. Technical report, Institute of Transportation Engineers/Federal Highway Administration, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: traffic calming, streets
[6] Reid Ewing. Impacts of traffic calming. Transportation Quarterly, 55(1):33-45, 2001. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, traffic calming
[7] Reid Ewing, Steven J. Brown, and Aaron Hoyt. Traffic calming practice revisited. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 75(11):22-27, 2005. [ bib ]
This paper describes a survey that was conducted with 21 U.S. jurisdictions concerning their traffic calming practices. The findings are compared to previous studies to demonstrate how policies and practices have evolved as the field has matured. The jurisdictions were surveyed regarding traffic calming program staffing, budgets, controversies and litigation. Process issues such as project initiation, prioritization/resource allocation, public approval, road user needs and technical issues such as street eligibility were also included. Finding showed significant changes in the mainstreaming of programs within transportation or public works departments, less public controversy surrounding programs, greater reliance on private financing of construction, more public involvement in planning through neighborhood traffic committees, limited expansion of eligibility beyond local streets to collectors and arterials, and expansion of individual agency toolboxes to include a greater range of speed control measures.

I was surprised by the tiny amount of money devoted to traffic calming in the jurisdictions they surveyed: only $80,000 total in Portland, with other funds coming from residents or the general public works department fund. They note that most projects are resident-initiated, rather than being identified by staff. Most cities prioritize projects using reasonable criteria: speed, volume, collisions, proximity to schools/hospitals/parks, ped/bike volumes, density, street width, and sidewalks are sometimes used. Some take a first come, first serve approach, and Sacramento even uses a lottery.
Keywords: traffic calming, streets, prioritisation
[8] Reid Ewing and C. Kooshian. U.S. experience with traffic calming. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 8(7):28-33, August 1997. [ bib ]
Keywords: traffic calming, streets
[9] Carmen Hass-Klau. An illustrated guide to traffic calming: the future way of managing traffic. Technical report, Friends of the Earth, London, UK, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, urban planning, traffic calming
[10] Carmen Hass-Klau. The theory and practice of traffic calming: can Britain learn from the German experience? Discussion Paper 10, Oxford University, Transportation Unit, Rees Jeffreys Road Fund, Oxford, UK, 1990. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, urban planning, transport planning, traffic calming
[11] Carmen Hass-Klau. Impact of pedestrianization and traffic calming on retailing: A review of of the evidence from Germany and the UK. Transport Policy, 1(1):21-31, 1993. [ bib ]
Keywords: pedestrian planning, urban planning, transport planning, traffic calming
[12] Tom Huber and John Williams. Wisconsin bicycle planning guidance. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, June 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls
[13] Andrew Nash. Traffic calming in three European cities: Recent experience. In Proceedings of the 84th meeting of the Transportation Research Board, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
An interesting look at Munich, Vienna and Zurich. Their approaches to funding are similar to Vancouver's, but they've done some very innovative projects, including narrowing arterials while maintaining capacity, and extensive parking management plans.
Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, parking, urban planning, traffic calming
[14] John Roberts. Quality streets: How traditional urban centres benefit from traffic-calming. Technical Report 75, Transport and Environmental Studies (TEST), London, UK, May 1988. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: urban planning, transport planning, pedestrian planning, traffic calming, streets
[15] John Roberts. User-friendly cities: What Britain can learn from mainland Europe. Technical report, Transport and Environmental Studies (TEST), London, UK, 1989. [ bib ]
Keywords: urban planning, traffic calming
[16] Graham Paul Smith. Homezones and traffic calming: implications for cyclists. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 5, pages 72-85. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: bicycle planning, traffic calming
[17] D.C. Webster and A.M. Mackie. Review of traffic calming schemes in 20mph zones. TRL Report 215, Transport Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, UK, 1996. [ bib ]
Keywords: traffic calming
[18] Asha Weinstein and Elizabeth Deakin. How local jurisdictions finance traffic calming projects. Transportation Quarterly, 53(3):75-87, 1999. [ bib ]
Keywords: transport planning, finance, traffic calming
[19] John Williams, Tom Walsh, David Harkey, Glenn Grigg, and Todd Litman. Wisconsin bicycle facility design handbook. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very good, modern approach to bicycle facility design, from a North American perspective. Some really excellent diagrams of traffic calming designs; a good description of right-turn conflicts (p. 3-20).
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls
[20] Andrzej Zalewski. Traffic calming on the national road network to improve cycling conditions in small towns in Poland: the case of Kobylnica Slupska on National Road 21. In Hugh McClintock, editor, Planning for Cycling: Principles, Practice and Solutions for Urban Planners, chapter 15, pages 237-250. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UK, 2002. [ bib |

detailed annotation

Keywords: bicycle planning, traffic calming

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