david pritchard. bibliography.

Keyword: "pavement marking"

[1] Alta Planning and Design. San Francisco's shared lane pavement markings: Improving bicycle safety. Technical report, San Francisco Department of Parking and Traffic, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
Some useful research on a distinctive type of bicycle facility. I still have mixed feelings on this design, although I can definitely imagine situations where it would be useful. The two major positive points are: it legitimizes cyclists taking the lane; improves distance between bicycles and door zone on streets where bicycles could not be otherwise accommodated. These are both major design achievements; I've spent some time thinking about these exact problems, and haven't come up with anything nearly as effective as this. However, I'm worried that this could be used as an excuse to not build bicycle lanes. A properly designed bicycle lane and parking zone should leave a buffer between parking and cyclists, and is more inviting on busy streets than a shared lane could be. Furthermore, a bicycle lane gives cyclists a real speed advantage in congested traffic: their lane might be empty while vehicle lanes are bumper-to-bumper.

The report shows that these markings encourage drivers to give bikes more clearance when passing, and gives bicycles the comfort margin needed to get them out of the dooring zone. Unfortunately, they don't address the issue of pavement markings to encourage parked cars to stay close to the curb, which is also an important part of the story.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking
[2] Michelle DeRobertis and Rhonda Rae. Buses and bicycles: Design alternatives for sharing the road. Institute of Transportation Engineers Journal, 71(5):36-44, May 2001. [ bib ]
This is a very good idea for streets with heavy bus traffic. Following the VACC's recommendation, Vancouver has implemented this on downtown Burrard St.
Keywords: bicycle planning, transit, streets, pavement marking
[3] Atze Dijkstra, Peter Levelt, Jytte Thomsen, Ole Thorson, Jan van Severen, Peter Vansevenant, Puk Kristine Nilsson, Else Jørgensen, Belinda la Cour Lund, and Jan Grubb Laursen. Best practices to promote cycling and walking. Technical report, Danish Road Directorate, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1998. [ bib | .pdf ]
The ADONIS project was commissioned by the European Commission to a Consortium comprising 7 partners as part of the Fourth Framework Programme. Original title of the project is: Analysis and Development Of New Insight into Substitution of short car trips by cycling and walking (ADONIS).

The ADONIS project was partly funded by the EU - DG VII Transport RTD Programme, Urban Sector and was co-financed by Danish Transport Council, Danish Ministry of Transport, Municipality of Barcelona, Catalan Institute of Road safety, SAINCO TRAFICO S.A., Swedish Transport & Communications Research Board and Belgian Institute for Traffic Safety.

Interesting ideas: C10 (New types of designs for bus stops) describes some interesting ways of designing bus stops to reduce conflicts with cyclists. In one of the options, the bicycle lane is against the curb, but the bus does not pull into the curb to let passengers off. Instead, it stops in its lane, and passengers walk across the bicycle lane. To help them, zebra crossings are marked across the bicycle lane at the bus doors. I think this design is only needed because buses in Denmark are not allowed to pull up to the curb when there is a bicycle lane. C17a-b (Two-way bicycle traffic in one-way streets in Belgium and the Netherlands) gives some interesting background on the effectiveness of this desirable tactic in those countries, and includes some useful signs used there. C18 (two-way traffic on cycle tracks) makes the interesting point that two-way tracks can be good solutions when there are many T juntions on one side of the street, but few on the other (e.g., next to rail tracks or water).

The crossings section is excellent: all of C19-C32 are worth reading. These ideas are first-rate, and few of them have been adopted in North America, from what I've seen. These are some of the biggest issues that I have with current design on this continent. I liked their use of the term “cycle crossing” where the bike lane/path is marked through an intersection.

The parking section (C33-C38) isn't too revolutionary. There are a few interesting details of free public bicycle programmes, and company bicycle programmes in C40-C42. The rest of the policy section (C39-C44) was unexciting, and likewise for the education section (C45-C52).

The organisation section had some interesting ideas. C53 discusses bicycles on public transport (mainly commuter rail routes) in Copenhagen. C56 (“BikeBusters”) describes a programme where committed car drivers were given a free bike, free bus tickets for a year, and asked to fill in trip diaries and track their weight and cholesterol. Others describe bike-to-school programmes, bicycle courier companies, and priority snow cleaning.

Keywords: bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, pavement colouring, pavement marking, streets
[4] Tom Huber and John Williams. Wisconsin bicycle planning guidance. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, June 2003. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls
[5] William W. Hunter and J. Richard Stewart. An evaluation of bike lanes adjacent to motor vehicle parking. Technical report, Florida Department of Transportation, December 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, parking, pavement marking, streets
[6] William W. Hunter, J. Richard Stewart, Jane C. Stutts, Herman H. Huang, and Wayne E. Pein. A comparative analysis of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes: Final report. Technical Report FHWA-RD-99-034, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, streets, pavement marking, bicycle segregation
[7] William W. Hunter, J. Richard Stewart, Jane C. Stutts, Herman H. Huang, and Wayne E. Pein. A comparative analysis of bicycle lanes versus wide curb lanes: Operational and safety findings and countermeasure recommendations. Technical Report FHWA-RD-99-035, U.S. Federal Highway Administration, Washington, D.C., USA, October 1999. [ bib | .pdf ]
Many, many good references! This is a really good read.
Keywords: bicycle planning, bicycle segregation, pavement marking, streets
[8] Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center. Bike lane design guide. Technical report, Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, Chapel Hill, NC, USA, August 2002. [ bib | http ]
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking
[9] John Williams, Tom Walsh, David Harkey, Glenn Grigg, and Todd Litman. Wisconsin bicycle facility design handbook. Technical report, Wisconsin Department of Transportation, Madison, WI, USA, 2004. [ bib | .pdf ]
A very good, modern approach to bicycle facility design, from a North American perspective. Some really excellent diagrams of traffic calming designs; a good description of right-turn conflicts (p. 3-20).
Keywords: bicycle planning, pavement marking, traffic calming, traffic controls

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