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  author = {Robert Cervero and Michael Duncan},
  title = {Walking, Bicycling and Urban Landscapes: Evidence from the
        {S}an {F}rancisco {B}ay {A}rea},
  journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
  year = 2003,
  volume = 93,
  number = 9,
  pages = {1478--1483},
  keywords = {active transportation, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, bicycle modelling},
  status = {read},
  abstract = {
        Some claim that cardependent cities contribute to obesity by
        discouraging walking and bicycling. In this article, we use household
        activity data from the San Francisco region to study the links between
        urban environments and nonmotorized travel.

        We used factor analysis to represent the urban design and land-use
        diversity dimensions of built environments. Combining factor scores
        with control variables, like steep terrain, that gauge impediments to
        walking and bicycling, we estimated discrete-choice models.
        Builtenvironment factors exerted far weaker, although not
        inconsequential, influences on walking and bicycling than control

        Stronger evidence on the importance of urban landscapes in shaping foot
        and bicycle travel is needed if the urban planning and public health
        professions are to forge an effective alliance against cardependent
  annote = {
        A good study looking at the factors influencing cycling and
        walking. The perspective is Cervero's usual framework, the three Ds:
        density, diversity and design. All three are found to have significant
        influences on bicycle usage, with the residential end being
        slightly more important. Of the urban form variables, the presence
        of neighbourhood retail is found to be the strongest predictor of

        From an evaluation standpoint, I wish these authors would
        standardize/normalize the coefficients of their models! After
        limiting to statistically significant variables, normalization
        would allow me to compare the relative influence of each
        variable on bicycle usage. It would also be extremely useful to
        include the mean and standard deviation of all input variables, to
        allow some rough comparisons to other study areas. If the input
        data has low variance (e.g., a uniformly low-density suburb),
        meaningful patterns could be missed.

        Finally, the bicycle model seems pretty shoddy---the rho-squared
        value is only 0.13! Since it only considers factors at origin and
        destination, I imagine it's missing a massive amount of valuable
        data, like the topography, safety and quality of the route itself.
  url = {}
  author = {Jean Eid and Henry G.~Overman and Diego Puga and Matthew
  title = {Fat {C}ity: Questioning the Relationship between Urban Sprawl
        and Obesity},
  year = 2006,
  type = {Manuscript Paper},
  institution = {University of Toronto},
  status = {read},
  url = {},
  keywords = {urban planning, active transportation, land use transport link},
  annote = {
        After a quick read, my main criticism regards their choice of
        neighbourhood variables. I am not convinced that they are capturing
        ``walkability'' in their coarse residential sprawl index or
        ``mixed-use'' index. While these two variables are intended to
        capture density and diversity (ignoring design), they ignore the
        work environment and probably do a poor job of measuring the
        residential environment. They also tried using the Smart Growth America
        sprawl index, but this index is not local enough to capture
        the necessary neighbourhood-scale effects.

        Additionally, I have to wonder about their sample---how many
        walkable environments were actually sampled? In the US, an
        unstratified sampling strategy would not include many walkable

        Finally, I have to wonder about time lags: their model only
        captures a change in BMI in the year following a move (when a
        change in sprawl/mixed use is observed). What about subsequent years?

        That said, these weaknesses are present in many other papers in the
        literature, and they do bring some interesting perspectives and
        methodology to the table. The inclusion of occupation variables
        associated with strength and strenuousness was a valuable addition
        to modelling in this area. I'd need to read the paper more closely
        before I'd be prepared to defend my complaints, really.
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Martin A.~Andresen and Thomas L.~ Schmid},
  title = {Obesity Relationships with community design, physical
        activity, and time spent in cars},
  year = 2004,
  month = aug,
  volume = 27,
  number = 2,
  pages = {87--96},
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  keywords = {urban planning, transport planning, active transportation, urban form, land use transport link},
  url = {},
  abstract = {
        Obesity is a major health problem in the United States and
        around the world. To date, relationships between obesity and
        aspects of the built environment have not been evaluated
        empirically at the individual level.

        To evaluate the relationship between the built environment
        around each participant's place of residence and self-reported
        travel patterns (walking and time in a car), body mass index
        (BMI), and obesity for specific gender and ethnicity

        Body Mass Index, minutes spent in a car, kilometers walked,
        age, income, educational attainment, and gender were derived
        through a travel survey of 10,878 participants in the Atlanta,
        Georgia region. Objective measures of land use mix, net residential
        density, and street connectivity were developed within a
        1-kilometer network distance of each participant's place of
        residence. A cross-sectional design was used to associate urban
        form measures with obesity, BMI, and transportation-related
        activity when adjusting for sociodemographic covariates.
        Discrete analyses were conducted across gender and ethnicity.
        The data were collected between 2000 and 2002 and analysis was
        conducted in 2004.

        Land-use mix had the strongest association with obesity (BMI>=30
        kg/m^2), with each quartile increase being associated
        with a 12.2\% reduction in the likelihood of obesity across
        gender and ethnicity. Each additional hour spent in a car per
        day was associated with a 6\% increase in the likelihood of
        obesity. Conversely, each additional kilometer walked per day
        was associated with a 4.8\% reduction in the likelihood of
        obesity. As a continuous measure, BMI was significantly
        associated with urban form for white cohorts. Relationships
        among urban form, walk distance, and time in a car were
        stronger among white than black cohorts.

        Measures of the built environment and travel patterns are
        important predictors of obesity across gender and ethnicity,
        yet relationships among the built environment, travel patterns, and
        weight may vary across gender and ethnicity. Strategies to
        increase land-use mix and distance walked while reducing time
        in a car can be effective as health interventions.
  status = {read},
  annote = {
        A very useful addition to the debates on urban form. I'm a fan of
        anything bring active transportation into the debate, rather than
        just trying to reduce SOV trips. I'm curious about why they
        found land-use mix and walking distance to be statistically
        independent influences on obesity. Their speculation that it may
        be related to nutrition (and so-called ``food deserts'') is an
        interesting idea.
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Gary Pivo},
  title = {Impacts of mixed use and density on utilization of three modes
        of travel: single-occupant vehicle, transit, and walking},
  year = 1994,
  journal = {Transportation Research Record},
  volume = 1466,
  pages = {44--52},
  status = {read},
  keywords = {urban planning, transport planning, urban form, transit, active transportation, land use transport link},
  abstract = {
        Findings from an empirical analysis to test the impacts of land-use
        mix, population density, and employment density on the use of the
        single-occupant vehicle (SOV), transit and walking for both work
        trips and shopping trips are presented. The hypothetical
        relationships tested focused on whether there is a relationship
        between urban form and modal choice, whether this relationship
        exists when controlling for non-urban form factors, whether this
        relationship is linear or nonlinear, and whether a stronger
        relationship exists between modal choice and urban form when they
        are measured at both trip ends as opposed to either the origin or
        the destination. A review of the literature and experiences
        suggested that a fair amount of information is known about the
        impacts of density on mode choice. However, considerable debate
        exists over whether density itself is actually the causal stimulus
        or a surrogate for other factors. To address this issue a data base
        was developed with a comprehensive set of variables for which
        density may be a proxy, for example, demographics and level of
        service. This analysis employed a correlational research design in
        which mode choice was compared among census tracts with differing
        levels of density and mix. Findings from this research indicate
        that density and mix are both related to mode choice, even when
        controlling for non-urban form factors for both work trips and
        shopping trips. Furthermore, the relationship between population
        and employment density and mode choice for SOV, transit and walking
        is nonlinear for both work and shopping trips. Transit usage and
        walking increase as density and land-use mix increase, whereas SOV
        usage declines. The findings from this research suggest that
        measuring urban form at both trip ends provides a greater ability
        to predict travel choices than looking at trip ends separately. The
        findings also suggest that increasing the level of land-use mix at
        the trip origins and destinations is also related to a reduction in
        SOV travel and an increase in transit and walking.
  annote = {
        Solid research, with more convincing methodology than Sch96 (which
        I read at about the same time).

        Overall, the most interesting result of the paper is the
        demonstration of nonlinearity. Figures 2 and 3 of their paper show
        a graph of modal share vs. employment density, and vs. population
        density. These graphs show that major increases in bus/walk modes
        only happen at employment densities greater than 125
        employees/acre (work trips), or 13 residents/acre (shopping trips).
        The implications for policy are obvious: if you aren't going to
        reach those thresholds, you're wasting your time. Also, the
        employment graph shows substantial nonlinearity: between 75 and 125
        employees/acre, there is essentially no change in mode share.

        They also had some predictable results: walking trips were the most
        sensitive to increases in population density; it's worth
        considering densities at both trip ends (i.e., both residential
        population density and employment population density); etc.
  author = {Billie Giles-Corti},
  title = {People or places: what should be the target?},
  year = 2006,
  journal = {Journal of Science \& Medicine in Sports},
  volume = 9,
  pages = {357--366},
  status = {read},
  keywords = {active transportation, urban form}
  author = {Susan L.~Handy and Marlon G.~Boarnet and Reid Ewing and
        Richard E.~Killingsworth},
  title = {How the built environment affects physical activity: Views from
        urban planning},
  year = 2002,
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  volume = 23,
  number = {2S},
  pages = {64--73},
  status = {read},
  keywords = {urban form, land use transport link, urban planning, active transportation}
  author = {John Pucher and Lewis Dijkstra},
  title = {Promoting Safe Walking and Cycling to Improve Public Health:
        Lessons from the {N}etherlands and {G}ermany},
  journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
  volume = 93,
  number = 9,
  year = 2003,
  month = sep,
  pages = {1509--1516},
  annote = {
        Some interesting stats on cycling and walking rates among the
        elderly in Germany and the Netherlands},
  keywords = {active transportation},
  url = {},
  status = {read}
  author = {J.~Emery and C.~Crump and P.~Bors},
  title = {Reliability and validity of two instruments designed to assess
        the walking and bicycling suitability of sidewalks and roads},
  year = 2003,
  journal = {American Journal of Health Promotion},
  volume = 18,
  number = 1,
  keywords = {bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, active transportation}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank},
  title = {Land use and transportation interaction: implications on
        public health and quality of life},
  journal = {Journal of Planning Education and Research},
  year = 2000,
  month = sep,
  volume = 20,
  number = 1,
  pages = {6--22},
  keywords = {urban planning, transport planning, active transportation, land use transport link},
  url = {\%20-\%20JPER\%20-\%202000.pdf},
  abstract = {
        Increases in per capita vehicle usage and associated emissions have
        an increased the examination of the ways in which our communities and
        regions  are  developing. Associated with increased vehicle usage are
        decreased  levels  of walking and biking, two valid forms of physical
        activity. The Surgeon General's 1996 report, Physical Activity and
        Health, highlights the increasing level of physical inactivity as a
        growing cause of mortality. The costs and benefits of contrasting land
        development and transportation investment practices have been the
        subject of considerable debate  in  the  literature.  Findings  have
        been refuted  based on methodological grounds and inaccurate
        interpretation of data. Several of these studies, their methodological
        approaches, and their critiques are analyzed. While most agree that the
        built environment influences travel, considerable disagreement exists
        over the likely impacts of increased density, mix, and street
        connectivity on air quality, transportation system performance, and
        household activity patterns.
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Peter O.~Engelke},
  title = {An Annotated Bibliography of Research on Land Development and
        Transportation Practices that Impact Physical Activity and Health},
  year = 2000,
  month = jan,
  institution = {Active Community Environments},
  type = {Working Paper},
  number = 2,
  keywords = {urban planning, transport planning, active transportation, urban form, land use transport link, urban planning},
  url = {}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Peter O.~Engelke},
  title = {The built environment and human activity patterns: exploring
        the impacts of urban form on public health},
  year = 2001,
  month = nov,
  journal = {Journal of Planning Literature},
  volume = 16,
  number = 2,
  pages = {202--218},
  keywords = {active transportation, urban planning, transport planning, urban form, land use transport link},
  url = {\%20and\%20Engelke\%20-\%20JPL\%20-\%202001.pdf},
  abstract = {
        An increasing body of evidence suggests that moderate forms of
        physical activity (such as walking and bicycling), when engaged
        in regularly, can have important beneficial effects on public
        health. This article reviews current public health, planning,
        and urban design research to determine, first, how walking and
        bicycling might be critically important exercise behaviors for
        improving public health, second, how urban form affects the
        frequency of walking and bicycling as a form of physical
        activity, and third, how the public health considerations
        outlined in this article might reorient planners' thinking
        toward the realization of health-promotive environments. The
        current lack of emphasis on the interdependencies between built
        form and overall quality of life, as measured by health,
        safety, and welfare considerations, suggests the need for a
        rethinking of public policy approaches to transportation
        investment and land development.
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Peter O.~Engelke},
  title = {Multiple Impacts of Urban Form on Public Health},
  year = 2004,
  journal = {International Regional Science Review},
  keywords = {active transportation, urban planning, transport planning, urban form, land use transport link}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Peter O.~Engelke and Thomas L.~Schmid},
  title = {Health and Community Design: The Impacts of the Built
        Environment on Physical Activity},
  publisher = {Island Press},
  address = {Washington, D.C., USA},
  year = 2003,
  keywords = {active transportation, urban planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, transport planning, land use transport link}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Peter O.~Engelke and Thomas L.~Schmid
        and Richard E.~Killingsworth},
  title = {How Land Use and Transportation Systems Impact Public Health:
        A Literature Review of the Relationship Between Physical Activity
        and Built Form},
  year = 2001,
  institution = {Active Community Environments},
  number = 1,
  type = {Working Paper},
  keywords = {urban planning, transport planning, active transportation, land use transport link, urban form},
  url = {}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and James F.~Sallis and Terry L.~Conway and
        James E.~Chapman and Brian E.~Saelens and William Bachman},
  title = {Many Pathways from Land Use to Health: Associations between
        Neighborhood Walkability and Active Transportation, Body Mass Index,
        and Air Quality},
  year = 2006,
  journal = {Journal of the American Planning Association},
  volume = 72,
  number = 1,
  pages = {75--87},
  url = {},
  keywords = {active transportation}
  author = {Lawrence D.~Frank and Thomas L.~Schmid and James F.~Sallis
        and James E.~Chapman and Brian E.~Saelens},
  title = {Linking objectively measured physical activity with
        objectively measured urban form: Findings from {SMARTRAQ}},
  year = 2005,
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  volume = 28,
  number = {2S2},
  pages = {117--125},
  url = {},
  keywords = {active transportation}
  author = {Howard Frumkin and Lawrence D.~Frank and Richard Jackson},
  title = {Urban sprawl and public health: designing, planning, and
        building for healthy communities},
  publisher = {Island Press},
  address = {Washington, D.C., USA},
  year = 2004,
  keywords = {active transportation, urban planning, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, urban form, transport planning}
  author = {Brian E.~Saelens and Jim F.~Sallis and Jennifer B.~Black and
        Dianna Chen},
  title = {Neighborhood-Based Differences in Physical Activity: An
        Environmental Scale Evaluation},
  year = 2003,
  journal = {American Journal of Public Health},
  volume = 93,
  pages = {1552--1558},
  keywords = {active transportation, urban form}
  author = {Brian E.~Saelens and Jim F.~Sallis and Lawrence D.~Frank},
  title = {Environmental Correlates of Walking and Cycling: Findings
        from Transportation, Urban Design and City Planning Literatures},
  journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
  year = 2003,
  volume = 25,
  number = 2,
  pages = {80--91},
  keywords = {active transportation, urban planning, urban form},
  url = {\%20et\%20al\%20-\%20ABM\%20-\%202003.pdf},
  abstract = {
        Research in transportation, urban design, and planning has examined
        associations between physical environment variables and
        individuals' walking and cycling for transport. Constructs,
        methods, and findings from these fields can be applied by physical
        activity and health researchers to improve understanding of
        environmental influences on physical activity. In this review,
        neighborhood environment characteristics proposed to be relevant to
        walking/cycling for transport are defined, including population
        density, connectivity, and land use mix. Neighborhood
        comparison and correlational studies with nonmotorized
        transport outcomes are considered, with evidence suggesting
        that residents from communities with higher density, greater
        connectivity, and more land use mix report higher rates of
        walking/cycling for utilitarian purposes than low-density,
        poorly connected, and single land use neighborhoods. Environmental
        variables appear to add to variance accounted for beyond
        sociodemographic predictors of walking/cycling for transport.
        Implications of the transportation literature for physical
        activity and related research are outlined. Future research
        directions are detailed for physical activity research to
        further examine the impact of neighborhood and other physical
        environment factors on physical activity and the potential
        interactive effects of psychosocial and environmental
        variables. The transportation, urban design, and planning
        literatures provide a valuable starting point for
        multidisciplinary research on environmental contributions to
        physical activity levels in the population.
  author = {Kjartan S{\ae}lensminde},
  title = {Cost-benefit analyses of walking and cycling track networks
        taking into account insecurity, health effects and external costs
        of motorized traffic},
  year = 2004,
  journal = {Transportation Research A},
  volume = 38,
  pages = {593--606},
  url = {\%20cost-benfit\%20analysis.pdf},
  keywords = {finance, pedestrian planning, bicycle planning, active transportation}
  author = {Jim F.~Sallis and Lawrence D.~Frank and Brian E.~Saelens and
        M.~Katherine Kraft},
  title = {Active transportation and physical activity: Opportunities
        for collaboration on transportation and public health research},
  year = 2004,
  month = may,
  journal = {Transportation Research A},
  volume = 38,
  number = 4,
  pages = {249--268},
  keywords = {active transportation, transport planning},
  url = {\%20et\%20al\%20-\%20TR\%20-\%202004.pdf},
  abstract = {
        Physically inactive lifestyles are a major public health challenge,
        and research in the transportation field on influences on the
        choice to walk and bike may provide guidance toward solutions.
        In the interests of promoting effective collaboration among the
        transportation, planning, and health fields, the current paper
        was written to fulfill three purposes. The first purpose was to
        summarize the transportation and planning studies on the
        relation between community design and non-motorized (``active'')
        transport and to interpret these studies from a health
        perspective. The second purpose was to summarize studies from
        the health literature that examine the relation between
        physical environmental variables and leisure-time physical
        activity that have relevance for transportation research. The
        third purpose was to promote more collaboration among
        transportation, planning, and health investigators by
        identifying opportunities for trans-disciplinary research.
  author = {Jim F.~Sallis and N.~Owen and Lawrence D.~Frank},
  title = {Behavioral epidemiology: a systematic framework to classify
        phases of research on health promotion and disease prevention},
  year = 2000,
  journal = {Annals of Behavioral Medicine},
  volume = 22,
  pages = {294--298},
  keywords = {active transportation}
  author = {J.~Schilling and L.~Linton},
  title = {The public health roots of zoning: in search of active
        living's legal genealogy},
  year = 2005,
  journal = {American Journal of Preventive Medicine},
  volume = 28,
  number = 2,
  pages = {96--104},
  keywords = {active transportation, history, urban planning}
  author = {A.I.~Zlot and T.L.~Schmidt},
  title = {Relationships among community characteristics and walking and
        bicycling for transportation or recreation},
  year = 2005,
  journal = {American Journal of Health Promotion},
  volume = 19,
  pages = {315--317},
  keywords = {bicycle planning, pedestrian planning, active transportation}

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